Canada is undergoing a fundamental identity crisis

Canada has never been as confident or confused as it is right now

(Ben Nelms/Reuters)

(Ben Nelms/Reuters)

Finding that perfect line between the treacly sentimentality of public cliché and the joyless buzzkill of hard-edged reality is not easy during  the festivities around Canada’s 150th, or, as I’ve come to think of it, the “Plus 150,” which is, at the very least, an acknowledgement that the First Peoples of this land have been here for thousands of years. Everything is political in Ottawa, including celebrating the brilliance of our Canadian experiment in democracy. Being sensitive to the passionate emotions and the history surrounding the day is hardly a sign of spineless political correctness, but a genuine recognition that Canada is undergoing  a fundamental identity crisis as we try to fuse where we come from with where we want to go.  We have never been as confident or as confused as we are right now.

On the outside, Canada is asserting a newly poised voice on the global stage, one the Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland explicitly outlined in her widely quoted speech on Canada’s new direction. “The fact that our friend and ally [the United States] has come to question the very worth of its mantle of global leadership, puts into sharper focus the need for the rest of us to set our own clear and sovereign course,” Freeland stated. “For Canada, that course must be the renewal, indeed the strengthening, of the postwar multilateral order.” Freeland, a brilliant thinker who has unsurprisingly emerged as one of the strongest and most trusted ministers in the cabinet, argued that a dependence on the US for security and leadership threatens to turn Canada into a “client state.” It was a startling statement both for its brazen confidence and its implicit criticism of the Trump administration. The Canadian government followed on that speech with a long term promise to invest tens of billions of dollars into the military, though the promises are back loaded until after the next election.

READ MORE: How Indigenous stories are taking centre stage in Ottawa

Still, judging from the amount of international attention that speech received, it affirmed one thing: Canada is having a “moment”—which is, arguably, a genuine form of soft power. At Plus 150, Canada appears to have got some national formula right—an inclusive, confident, multicultural society that has rejected a xenophobic populism and embraced the 70 year old multinational vision of small L liberalism, matched with a growing economy. Okay, slow growth at best, but still, it all stands in high relief to Donald Trump’s more paranoid isolationism, his partial ban on immigration, his desire to build walls and pull out of international treaties. Contrast works in politics.

Meanwhile, Justin Trudeau is the first Prime Minister to actively try to turn himself into a brand, making headlines around the globe for his championship of feminism, his support of free trade and multilateralism. Heck, even his carefully choreographed runs, photo bombs and colourful socks make international news, a protein free style of reporting to which, thankfully, most of the Ottawa Press gallery are highly allergic. Should he really be manspreading on the cover of a Delta airlines in-flight magazine? That looks strange and desperate, but there’s no question, the guy is in high demand and his brand, “Just Embrace It,” is a message that a polarized world is eating up. It’s 2017 and maybe digital diplomacy and national identity really do mean, “If you’ve got, it flaunt it.”

Or maybe not. Inside Canada, our identity is not nearly as confident and that brand not nearly as solid. Not only has the Liberal government’s and Trudeau’s popularity fallen in recent polls, there is genuine doubt about what’s actually been delivered in the past two years. This is a federal government that openly adopted the same soaring rhetoric of Barak Obama, but is perilously close to delivering the same diminished reality.

READ MORE: Perry Bellegarde on recognizing this land’s founding Indigenous peoples

For example, the limp failure to deliver on the promise that “2105 would be the last federal election conducted under the first-past-the-post voting system” was exacerbated this week by the PM’s disingenuous excuse that it was all the opposition’s fault. The truth is, the opposition made a  tremendous effort putting forward various options and  worked faithfully to change the system, but it was all a ruse. Trudeau always preferred one system—the ranked ballot—and was not prepared to accept any option but his own. It was about as obvious a promise break as there could be, like snapping a branch to make firewood and journalists like Andrew Coyne, who went on to savage Trudeau for his dissembling in a brilliant column, practically choked on the smoke as it emerged from the PM’s mouth.

The First Nations’ file has been another example of the Canadian identity crisis, one where the gap between the rhetoric and the reality is growing. When a group of activists tried to erected a teepee on Parliament Hill before July 1, it immediately turned into a confrontation with police. Eventually the tepee was given a place and to assuage tempers, the Prime Minister and Sophie Gregoire Trudeau made a surprise visit. It was a smart and sensitive gesture and reflected a genuine passion the PM has for First Nations issues. “Today I visited the protest tipi on Parliament Hill,” Mr. Trudeau tweeted out afterwards. “The painful fact behind this protest is that for far too long there’s simply no space for Indigenous Peoples to be heard in Ottawa. We took some steps to fix that last month by dedicating 100 Wellington street, across from the Hill, as a space for Indigenous Peoples.” He went on to say that “breaking free from colonial structures is something we’ll do together” even if “we might not always agree in discussions or on the path forward.”

If it was genuine and compassionate in tone, Cindy Blackstock, the Indigenous activist for the rights of children, saw it as just another example of political rhetoric. I wrote to her about it and her detailed responses are worth reading in full, especially in contrast the PM’s short twitter statements on the subject.

Q: Has Justin Trudeau lived up to his reconciliation promise? 

Blackstock:  In symbols, yes. In substance, no. Aboriginal Day was a good example. Change the name to “Indigenous Day” and then vote against full gender equity in the Indian Act. Follow that by announcing an appeal of the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal decision regarding Jordan’s Principle (to ensure First Nations children have equitable access to all public services) two days later. The child welfare case is another good example. Equity in child welfare was the number one Truth and Reconciliation Commission call to action and the PM said he would implement them before he was elected. Several months after he took power the opportunity to make good on that promise came in the form of the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal decision that Canada’s failure to provide equitable child welfare services and ensure equitable access to other public service amounted to racial discrimination against 165,000 children. The Tribunal ordered the government to cease the discrimination and the Ministers of Health and Justice welcomed the decision and then failed to implement it. The Tribunal is so unsatisfied with Canada’s compliance that it has issued three non-compliance orders and another is expected shortly. While the government says “it is working hard” and the situation is “complicated” it ignores very clear direction from First Nations communities and the Tribunal on how to comply.

I am not a politician but I have no idea why ignoring legal orders to stop discriminating against little children makes sense particularly when the government has no problem spending money on less worthy, and more expensive, projects.

This past week the Prime Minister was asked about the government’s non-compliance. He said the problem was that First Nations had not taken “leadership” in presenting solutions and/or lacked capacity. Both are false.  First Nations have repeatedly put evidence-informed solutions to the government only to have them ignored. The government’s own evaluations suggest that capacity issues in First Nations Child and Family Service Agencies (many of have been providing child welfare for 30-plus years) could be overcome with equitable funding. He accepted no responsibility for the government’s ongoing violations of the law or perpetuation of the discrimination that is, in the words of the Tribunal, “incentivizing the removal of First Nations children from their families.”  There are three times the number of First Nations children in child welfare care today than at the height of residential schools, yet the government’s response is ignore, deny and delay. It is not good enough nor is it legal.

I have written two letters to the Prime Minister urging him to play a personal role in ensuring Canada complies with the Tribunal’s decision.  He has not responded.  I pray he does the right thing and stops another generation of First Nations children being unnecessarily removed from their families due to government neglect.

Q: What does the government’s appeal of the decision to change aspects of the Indian Act that discriminate against women tell you?

Blackstock: It makes the Government’s statements about supporting feminism symbolic. It is not enough to have a gender balance in cabinet whilst fighting to preserve gender discrimination in federal legislation.

Q: What is your message to Canada for our future?

Blackstock: You are the people of this period. The ones who know about the injustices facing First Nations, Metis and Inuit peoples and have a historic opportunity to set the country on a path where Indigenous children never have to recover from their childhoods and non-Indigenous children never have to say they are sorry. Not sure where to start? Read the TRC report and go to and find seven free ways you can help.

Blackstock’s words express a turmoil about our national identity that remains deeply unresolved and in contrast with the confident face we put out to the world. Our reality has a long way to go before it catches up with the rhetoric. At Plus 150, Canada is having the exact identity crisis it so desperately needs.



Canada is undergoing a fundamental identity crisis

  1. It occurs to me, and I realize that as a person of European descent I could be wrong, that at some point Canada is going to have to stop giving lip service to self government, and really move forward with something concrete. First Nations need to be equal partners in this federation, and the one of the only ways I see going forward is for the Federal Government to get rid of Indigenous and Northern Affairs (changing a name doesn’t make it not be colonialism), and welcome the First Nations as Canada’s 11th equal province.

    That means our first nations finally get control of their own affairs like education, healthcare, child welfare, etc. Yes, this would mean that every existing province loses some territory, but was it really ever their territory to begin with? Should the democratically elected leader of our First Nations not have at least the same power and respect as the premier of PEI? Nothing says a province needs to be one single contiguous piece of land.

  2. All countries are having an identity crisis at the moment

    We are moving from the old nation-states into entirely new configurations Some small, some large, some to different internal divisions……

    We will eventually come together in entirely new ways.

  3. Congratulations to Cindy Blackstock for recognizing and exposing Trudeau’s “all style and no substance” political rhetoric. Other Canadians who swoon over his selfies and glib generalities will clue in at some point.

    • Good for you for “supporting” Trudeau’s progressive agenda that over 45% Canadians like and support.
      My guess is that you would prefer Harper’s Reform/Alliance agenda that was soundly rejected in the last Federal election?
      In two years time you will have a chance to go back to “good old days” or maybe not!?

      • We are being buried by the largest debt in history. Per person spending has only been this high in one other era — that’s right — another Liberal — Mr. King. We are still paying interest on both King’s and Trudeau Sr’s. spending habits.

        Under Harper 2035 was projected to bring us a $750 billion surplus. Under Trudeau 2035 is projected to bring a $1.5 trillion hole. You call that a “progressive agenda”???

        • No, I call it bullshit. As does everyone else.

  4. A garbled mess on an article.

  5. Librano Propaganda from an ex reporter at TrudeauVision® (CBC).

  6. Geez, Evan – you’re echoing the cry of the Canadian ‘everyman’ there – or at least every man who had three too many beers watching the big game. Chrystia Freedland may be ‘brilliant’- according to her transcript – but she’s a shrieking hysteric most of the rest of the time – the sort of ‘nasty woman’ the current President of the USA wouldn’t ‘grab’ if he’d been drinking. We’ll see how she does with NAFTA – if what the Walloons did to her over the ‘sure fire’ Europact is an indication, she’s going to need a massive crying towel.

    Trudeau? You can’t say he’s not popular, even if he hasn’t done everything he said he would. Most Canadians like a steadily-developing economy, better than they like the prospect of having the animal rights league get a couple of seats in Parliament. But re-jigging the electoral process – hopefully long before 2105 – even if Junior doesn’t do it – would be a great time to put the native peoples on the same playing field as the Quebecois (see Cherkowski below). I reacall my uncle – two years ‘off the boat from Ulster”, in 1955, saying something to the effect that “They should give the place back to the Indians” – although I’m not sure he meant that since he wound-up building infrastructure on a couple of reserves.

    It’s about time that Canada’s First Nations took their rightful place among the rest of us, there are increasingly, numbers of well-educated and well-spoken indigenous people – knowledgeable in standard ‘Canadian’ ways, as well as, hopefully, their own. For too long Native peoples have been their own worst enemies, accepting the third rate ‘patronage’ of governments, rather than working for their own goals. Time to break out of that, ‘You owe me a living’ mould.

    They should be saying ‘screw the reconciliation’ and demanding a fair opportunity like every other Canadian has gotten. If an immigrant can arrive in Canada with nothing much and not knowing the languages and still be a ‘success’ 35 years down the road – how is he much different from any other Canuck?

    While all Canadians may have much to learn from indigenous culture – there’s a lot that indigenous people could, and possibly should, be learning from ‘new’ Canadians.

    • This your current hate list?

  7. The obsession with Trudeau’s socks is emblematic of the low quality of journalism these days: by the mere mention the author here is taking Macleans another step towards People Magazine.
    Continuous improvement is a good and necessary thing for any organization. Lets consider that Canada didn’t actually become an independent country until 1982 and even then failed to amputate all the appendages of colonial subjugation. Perhaps the most important step in our evolution was the addition of the Charter which we are still learning to live with: notably one party still grates against it and our previous PM took many opportunities to denounce the complications of working to it, especially where it supports self determination. It’s forerunner, the Canadian Bill of Rights, was exemplary of Canadian niceness but since it was voluntary, few – especially politicians and civil servants – got little real practice: tellingly, it wasn’t until 9 years later that the right to vote became universal. Our dishonorable treatment of indigenous people stands out as a bellwether but the fact that being black is sufficient cause for police action should also be cautionary. Unfortunately, the general impression is that colonialism is merely a blight on indigenous Canadians when it bears on all of us: Canada was constructed over a framework of the British class system with it’s assumptions of aristocracy and servitude and misogynist and racist attitudes; this is more systemic than one would care to admit beginning with the ‘two founding nations’ mythology. Even indigenous people have bought into the myth with frequent references to ‘whites’ which is an insult to Canadians of Asian, African, Polynesian and even South American origins. Toadying up to the US is just an echo of colonial subservience – old habits are hard to break. Ms Freeland has taken a stab at putting on our big boy pants as a nation; hopefully this signals a trend to thinking for ourselves. Canada after all is a vibrant and capable nation that punches well above its weight economically, intellectually and socially. It’s past time to truly appreciate our diversity and fully value our human capital. For a start, we’ve got to stop dressing up in the trappings of British colonialism; perhaps the first lesson should be that the initial impetus for confederation talks was the colonial office’s desire to do colonialism on the cheap. Also, it wouldn’t hurt to start teaching Canadian history rather than British-Canadian history in our schools. Even the story that Giovanni Caboto discovered Canada establishing British discovery is flawed and inaccurate and likely colored by his conversations with Basque sailors. It also ignores the fact that Canada has a west coast, likely intentionally as written records and treaties establish that the Brits were not the first after indigenous people to that shore. The common image of great ‘explorers’ being conveyed to parts unknown by indigenous paddlers (whose identity we may never know) is clearly a distortion. Brock’s monument at Queenston is a giant phallic emblem of British hubris: after Brock’s deputies left a key position undefended, Brock’s impetuous response quickly got him killed after perhaps 20 minutes on the field, yet Brock has a monument while John Brant, Mohawk, who recovered the position and John Norton, Cherokee, who blunted American crossings of the river have not even a plaque. John Brant was also the first indigenous member of a legislative assembly but was removed after a year due to restrictions on land ownership imposed on indigenous people and which more generally prevented ordinary individuals from holding office.

  8. If Canada has an identity crisis it is founded in a failed execution of culture.

    Pierre Trudeau sold us on the concept of multiculuralism, and it’s a good one, but what have we implemented?

    Yes we probably tolerate diverse cultures better than most but that isn’t enough to bring us all together.

    Religion is a fundamental part of culture. Do we really embrace all religions equally?

    That is no small part of the task for a multicultural nation. Being secular won’t do it. Religion is part of culture.

    How do we address the inherent conflicts between religions? How can we still be a united nation? Who says what is our common ground?

    I suggest that the truth that we can discern with honesty, intelligence, logic and science is our common ground.

    But we need to do more than simply pay lip service to it. We need to make truth law.

    That requires criminalizing lying.

    We have the technology to do it but apparently not the will. That is our failure, the reason we cannot move forward together, as one multicultural nation.

    Hatred is conflict. Truth cannot be in conflict with truth.

  9. Has anyone noticed that hardly anyone calls themselves Canadians? Ask them what their nationality is and they will reply “Polish, Serbian, Jamaican” or whatever their ancestral country is. Even aboriginals identify by their tribe. This applies even if the person is born in Canada. Is our country just pieces of every other country? Notice when we celebrate Canada Day, we get Ukrainian dancers, etc. etc. Why cannot we have even one day which is just about Canada. As a former school music teacher, I know there are dozens of songs, etc. about Canada, its provinces, its history. In Alberta the August long weekend is called Heritage Days, and this is a chance for other nationalities to celebrate their culture. Please, let us stop being hyphenated Canadians, and celebrate this country as a COUNTRY.