2021 Election Platform Guide

Stay up-to-date on what the Liberals, Conservatives, New Democrats and Greens have promised Canadians as the parties go into campaign mode

Canadians go to the polls on Sept. 20. We are once again assembling a list of promises made by the four major political parties, updating as information becomes available. In addition, we have added links and details for the cost of specific promises, as calculated by the Office of the Parliamentary Budget Officer (PBO). Note: not all promises are costed by the PBO.

For a look at the Bloc Quebecois’s policies, click here. See the People’s Party of Canada platform here. Did we miss something? Let us know by emailing platforms@macleans.ca.

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Originally published: July 23, 2021 Latest update: Sept. 14, 2021

Here’s what each party has promised so far on every major issue.

Liberal platform

  • Make the financial institutions with earnings of more than $1 billion pay more by increasing their income tax rates from 15 to 18 per cent. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Create a minimum tax rule so that those in the top tax bracket pay at least 15 per cent income tax. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Create a Canada Recovery Dividend for the largest financial firms, which have “recovered faster and stronger than many other industries,” at $5.5 billion over five years. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Tax vacant properties of non-residents (See Housing). (source)
  • Create a luxury tax on new cars and private aircraft (worth at least $100,000, excluding motorcycles, racing cars, motor homes, farm vehicles etc.) and pleasure boats (at least $250,000). (source)
  • Increase the income level at which the Canada Workers Benefit starts to be reduced to $22,944 for individuals, and $26,177 for families. The tax refund is up to $2,400. (source)
  • Reduce the tax rates of zero-emission technology firms by 50 per cent (See Environment). (source, PBO analysis)
  • Investment tax credit for capital in carbon capture projects with a goal of reducing emissions by at least 15 megatonnes of carbon dioxide annually. (source)
  • Change the Climate Action Incentive payment from an annual refundable credit to a quarterly payment. (source)
  • Update the assessments for the Disability Tax Credit, so that an estimated 45,000 additional people will qualify. (source)
  • Implement a Digital Services Tax of three per cent on revenue of digital services from Canadian users for businesses with revenues exceeding the an OECD-set threshold of 750 million euros. (source)
  • Reduce the amount of interest that can be deduced by certain businesses from 40 per cent of earnings in the first year, and then to 30 per cent, to limit excessive deductions by large corporations. (source)
  • Eliminate the tax benefits of so-called hybrid-mismatch arrangements, used largely by multinationals, which should increase revenues by $775 million over four years. (source)
  • Strengthen the Canadian Revenue Agency’s ability to combat complex tax schemes; amend the Income Tax Act to combat tax collection avoidance schemes. (source, PBO analysis)

Conservative platform

  •  Give Canadians a month-long “holiday” from paying the five per cent federal goods and services tax, for $1.8 billion. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Double the Canada Workers Benefit to a maximum of $2,800 per person or $5,000 per family, for $24 billion over five years. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Upgrade the office of the Taxpayer Ombudsman to an officer of Parliament. (source)
  • Review the tax system and change penalties so first-time errors receive minor fines. (source)
  • Introduce a five per cent tax credit for capital investments made in 2022-2023, for $13.8 billion; for small businesses the first $25,000 is refundable. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Up the disbursement quota for charitable foundations to 7.5 per cent a year. (source)
  • Let businesses with less than $60,000 in revenues use simple cash accounting. (source)
  • Exempt Canadian start-ups that have at least ⅔ of their employees in Canada from the plan to tax stock options. (source)
  • Increase the disability supplement from $744 to $1,500. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Work towards a single income tax return for Quebec. (source)
  • Introduce flow-through shares (a tax-based financing incentive) to make investment in small tech start-ups more attractive. (source)
  • Cut the income tax rate in half for new patented technologies developed in Canada. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Introduce a tax credit for Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage technology (See Climate Change and Environment). (source)
  • Implement a new carbon pricing scheme (See Climate Change and Environment). (source)
  • Tax relief for facilities that buy high-cost emissions reduction technology (See Climate Change and Environment). (source)

NDP platform

  • Tax the sale of homes to non-residents, which will bring in $2.4 billion over five years (See Housing) (source, PBO analysis)
  • Create a minimum tax rule so that those in the top tax bracket pay at least 15 per cent income tax. (source)
  • Invest $100 million in the Canada Revenue Agency so it can enforce tax rules, especially against tax evasion. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Introduce a temporary COVID-19 excess profit tax of 15 per cent tax on large corporate windfalls earned during the pandemic, which will bring in $14.6 billion in 2021-22. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Increase the capital gains inclusion rate to 75 per cent, which will bring in $44.7 billion over five years. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Boost the top marginal tax rate by two points to 35 per cent for those making over $210,000 a year, which will bring in $3.4 billion over five years. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Enact a luxury goods tax on items like yachts and private jets. (source)
  • Enact a one per cent wealth tax on people with more than $10 million in wealth, which will bring in $60 billion over five years. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Roll back the three-point cut to corporate income tax enacted by the Harper government, to bring it back to the 2010 level of 18 per cent, while keeping the small business tax rate at its current level, which will bring in $25.9 billion over five years. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Close loopholes by eliminating bearer shares, forcing companies to prove economic reasons for offshore transactions and improving transparency on taxes paid by large corporations, which will bring in $12.2 billion over five years. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Make the Canada Caregiver Tax Credit refundable so that low-income recipients benefit. (source)

 

Green platform

  • Close tax loopholes to “redistribute wealth towards communities that have been under-invested in,” including those for stock options and offshore tax shelters. (source)
  • Apply a one per cent tax on net wealth above $20 million. (source)

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Liberal platform

  • Establish a $15 per hour federal minimum wage, which will rise with inflation; if lower than provincial or territorial minimum wages, then higher rates prevail. (source)
  • Make it easier for Canadians to find unclaimed federal assets (See Democracy & Governance.) (source)
  • Make Employment Insurance simpler and more accessible, including uniform access to benefits across regions, with $3.9 billion over three years. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Implement the “right to repair” for home appliances, electronics and digital devices. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Help the aerospace sector recover from the pandemic with $250 million over three years. (source)
  • Allow Canadian-controlled private firms to immediately expense up to $1.5 million of eligible investments in each of the next three years, which will reduce federal revenues by $2.2 billion over five years. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Endow an agency like DARPA in the United States with $2 billion to “unleash bold new research and ideas.” (source, PBO analysis)
  • Renew the Pan-Canadian Artificial Intelligence Strategy with up to $443.8 million over 10 years, including fund to commercialize AI innovations and attract academic talent. (source)
  • Launch a National Quantum Strategy with $360 million over seven years. (source)
  • Provide $400 million for a temporary Community Services Recovery Fund to help charities and non-profits with economic recovery. (source)
  • Start the Regional Development Agency for British Columbia, with $553.1 million over five years. (source)
  • Give $100 million to the Supporting Black Canadian Communities Initiative. (source)

Conservative platform

  • When safe, launch a one-month Dine and Discover Program that gives a 50 per cent rebate for food and non-alcoholic drinks for those dining from Monday to Wednesday. (source)
  • Allow foreign telecom firms to offer services in Canada if their countries reciprocate.
  • Connect all of Canada to high-speed internet by 2025. (source)Give a 15 per cent tax credit for vacation expenses of up to $1,000 per person for citizens vacationing in Canada in 2022 under the Explore and Support Canada initiative. (source)
  • Make oil pipeline construction a priority; implement a federal LNG Export Strategy. (source)
  • Invest $1.5 billion to help Newfoundland and Labrador’s offshore oil industry. (source)
  • “Resolve the Softwood Lumber Dispute with the United States.” (source)
  • Require large federally-regulated employers include workers on their boards of directors. (source)
  • Change the Canada Labour Code to help unions organize big firms with histories of anti-labour activities. (source)
  • Double the residency deduction for the north, boost the basic amount in the intermediate zone to match the northern zone and add the Northern Peninsula of Newfoundland, new parts of northern Saskatchewan and new parts of northwestern B.C. to the zone. (source)
  • Establish a Canadian Advanced Research Agency to fund cutting-edge technologies such as carbon capture and storage, hydrogen fuel, small modular reactors, electric vehicle development and pharmaceutical research and production, by spending $5 billion. (source, PBO analysis)

NDP platform

  • Expand income security programs, beginning with seniors and people with disabilities, to build toward a point where everyone has access to a guaranteed livable basic income. (source)
  • Expand domestic manufacturing capacity and supply chains for critical sectors including auto, aerospace, shipbuilding, construction materials, pharmaceuticals and personal protective equipment. (source)
  • Scrap the Invest in Canada agency in favour of creating iCanada, a “one-stop shop” to attract investors to Canada and boost Canadian industry internationally. (source)
  • Convene an auto summit with provincial, municipal, industry and labour leaders to develop a National Automotive Strategy to attract and retain jobs and adapt product lines and manufacturing processes to current consumer and industry needs. (source)
  • Restore the Automotive Innovation Fund and make contributions to automakers tax-free to help boost production capacity. (source)
  • Waive the federal sales tax on all zero-emissions vehicle purchases and provide additional incentives of up to $15,000 per family for ZEVs made in Canada. (source)
  • Create a “centre of excellence” for research and development of ZEVs to advance technologies such as hydrogen, batteries and energy storage. (source)
  • Develop a national industrial strategy to build “an advanced low-carbon manufacturing economy.” (source)
  • Require the use of Canadian-made steel and aluminum for infrastructure projects. (source)
  • Enact a price cap on cell phone and internet bills to ensure Canadians don’t pay more than the global average. (source)
  • Require providers to offer a basic plan for wireless and broadband that is comparable to affordable plans available in other countries. (source)
  • Require telecom providers to offer unlimited wireless data at affordable rates “as exist elsewhere in the world.” (source)
  • Abolish data caps for broadband internet. (source)
  • Introduce a Telecom Consumers’ Bill of Rights. (source)

Green platform

  • Create a comprehensive and equitable Guaranteed Livable Income to “provide every Canadian with a basic revenue source, ensuring that people can cover basic expenses such as food and accommodation.” The amount would decrease as other incomes grow. (source)
  • Increase spending on research and development to 2.5 per cent of GDP; up the funding of granting councils like SSHRC to $30 billion. (source)
  • Add $150 million annually for four years to the Universal Broadband Fund. (source)

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Liberal platform

  • Give 10 days paid sick leave for federally-regulated workers. (source)
  • Establish a new apprentice service to help first-year apprentices in Red Seal trades connect with opportunities in smaller employers, at a cost of $470 million over three years. (source)
  • Increase the wage subsidy to $7,500 per person in the Student Work Placement Program for post-secondary students while also expanding employers’ access to the program, for $239.8 million. (source)
  • Expand the Employment Insurance benefit to the self-employed for up to 26 weeks. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Create an EI Career Insurance Benefit that extends benefits for long-time workers of firms that close. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Create a Labour Mobility Tax Credit so construction workers can deduct up to $4,000 in travel expenses. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Expand the Employment Insurance sickness benefit from 15 to 26 weeks, as of summer 2022, and ensure job protection for workers in federally-regulated industries. (source)
  • Add $109.3 million for the Youth Employment and Skills Strategy for vulnerable youth. (source)
  • Create at least 85,000 on-the-job learning opportunities through work placements from the non-profit Mitacs, with $708 million over five years. (source)
  • Continue the Canada Recovery Hiring Program to March 31, 2022. (source)
  • Offer wage and rent supports of up to 75% of expenses for the tourism industry for the winter. (source)

Conservative platform

  • Pay from 25 to 50 per cent of the salaries of new workers for six months after the end of the Canada Emergency Wage Subsidy, for $7.6 billion. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Create a “super Employment insurance” for provinces in recession that temporarily offers 75 per cent of salary, instead of 55 per cent. (source)
  • Expand EI sickness benefits to 52 weeks for those seriously ill. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Require gig companies contribute the equivalent of CPP and EI premiums to new tax-free, portable Employee Savings Accounts. (source)
  • Create a construction mobility tax credit of up to $4,000 for temporary relocation costs. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Establish passengers’ rights legislation based on the EU system, entitling full refunds when flights are cancelled. (source)
  • Support non-profit initiatives designed to attract women to jobs in skilled trades. (source)
  • Double the Apprenticeship Job Creation Tax Credit for the next three years, for $150 million over three years. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Invest $250 million over two years to create a Canada Job Training Fund, which would provide grants for projects that give laid-off workers immediate access to training; reach underrepresented groups; help tourism and hospitality workers; support small businesses. (source)
  • Create a Working Canadian Training Loan to provide low-interest loans of up to $10,000 to workers who want to upgrade their skills. (source)

NDP platform

  • Create more than one million new jobs in the first term by spending on “bold public investments” in clean energy, social infrastructure, energy efficiency and climate resilience. (Note: no spending figure was attached to this item in the platform). (source)
  • Create a low-income supplement so that anyone using Employment Insurance benefits receives $2,000 a month. (source)
  • Make EI available to those who quit their job to return to school, provide necessary childcare or protect their health or the health of immunocompromised family members. (source)
  • Extend EI sickness benefits from 15 weeks to 50. (source)
  • Create a pilot project to allow people with episodic illnesses and disabilities to use sickness benefits one day at a time. (source)
  • Restore and make permanent the “extra five weeks” pilot project that allowed workers in seasonal jobs to fill the gap between the end of EI and the beginning of their seasonal work. (source)
  • Freeze EI premiums until the economy recovers (Note: what that would mean is not specified). (source)
  • Update the Canada Labour Code to “enhance safeguards for workers.” (source)
  • Establish a permanent “safety net” of paid sick leave across the country, including allowing workers to take sick leave one or two days at a time, offering full income replacement and reimbursing employers instead of requiring workers to apply for the program. (source)
  • Legislate “immediately” 10 paid sick days in the Canada Labour Code for federally regulated workplaces. (source)
  • Prioritize gender-based pay equity, requiring employers to be transparent about pay, and implement and enforce legislation and regulations. (source)
  • Update the Canada Labour Code to provide 10 days of paid leave for people dealing with family and domestic violence. (source)
  • Establish anti-scab legislation that will ban the use of replacement workers in the event of a labour dispute. (source)
  • Create a hiring bonus in which the federal government covers the employer’s share of employment insurance and Canada Pension Plan premiums for new hires or laid-off employees who are rehired. (source)
  • Require large employers to spend at least one per cent of payroll on employee training each year. (source)
  • Create a “workers development and opportunities fund” to expand training options beyond people who qualify for EI, providing dedicated support for marginalized workers, people in transitioning sectors and efforts to boost literacy and essential skills. (source)

 

Green platform

  • Increase apprentice programs. (source)
  • Create parity between student and minimum wages by establishing a $15 an hour minimum federal student wage. (source)

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Liberal platform

  • Provide $1.4 billion over four years to provide microgrants for small business technology needs and link young people to smaller businesses who need such tech help. (source)
  • Expand the Canada Small Business Financing Program through increasing loan maximums to $500,000 and 15 years; expand eligibility to non-profits, for $560 million a year. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Strengthen access by women entrepreneurs to financing, mentorship and training with $146.9 million over four years. (source)
  • Add $51.7 million over four years to agency funding for the Black Entrepreneurship Program. (source)
  • Create ElevateIP, to help innovators access expert intellectual property services, with $90 million over two years, and another $75 million over three years for a similar Industrial Research Assistance Program for high-growth firms. (source)
  • Design and deliver training, especially to small and medium-sized businesses, with $960 million over three years. (source)
  • Invest $1.9 billion to help the tourist industry recover from the pandemic, including supporting festivals, theatres and amateur sports events. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Increase capital available to entrepreneurs by adding $450 million over five years to the Venture Capital Catalyst Initiative. (source)
  • Modernize federal procurement and create more opportunities for businesses managed or owned by Indigenous and Black people, for $87.4 million over five years. (source)

Conservative platform

  • Create a Canada Job Training Fund that would support small businesses (see Jobs & Skills training). (source)
  • Create a Rebuild Main Street Business Loan for small and medium firms that will go up to $200,000, which is interest-free and with up to 25 per cent forgiveness, depending on pandemic revenue losses, for $2.2 billion. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Introduce a 25 per cent tax credit for Canadians who invest up to $100,000 in a small business in the next two years. (source)
  • Offer loans of up to $200,000 (with up to 25 per cent forgiven, depending on revenue loss) to small and medium hospitality, retail and tourism businesses. (source)
  • Extend the mandate of Export Development Canada so its loan program is open for small businesses. (source)
  • Pay up to $10,000 for legal and administrative costs of each of the first five patents filed by small or medium businesses. (source)

NDP platform

  • Continue wage and rent subsidies for small businesses until they can fully reopen from the pandemic. (source)
  • Establish a hiring bonus in which the government will pay the employer portion of EI and Canada Pension Plan for new and rehired staff. (source)
  • Cap credit card merchant fees at one per cent. (source)
  • Streamline access to government export services to help small businesses access foreign markets. (source)

Green platform

  • Keep the small business tax rate to a maximum of nine per cent. (source)
  • Fund a Green Venture Capital Fund with $1 billion for viable small start-ups. (source)

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Liberal platform

  • Estimate that the cost of the Liberal election promises will use roughly half of the five percentage point drop in the projected debt-to-GDP ratio in the federal budget released in April. (source)

Conservative platform

  • “Adopt a responsible and measured approach to balance the budget over the next decade” (source)
  • Use promises in the party platform to “reduce the deficit by almost 90 per cent by repairing the economy.” (source)

NDP platform

  • Ensure Canada’s long-term finances are fiscally sustainable according to the Parliamentary Budget Officer’s fiscal sustainability measures. (source)
  • Broadly, the party says its platform and spending commitments will be financed by reforming the tax system so that big corporations and wealth individuals pay more.(source)

Green platform

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Liberal platform

  • Provide another $6 billion – in addition to $4 billion in budget – to help provinces and territories clear health-care system backlogs and wait lists caused by the pandemic. (source, PBO analysis) (source)
  • Amend laws to “deduct health transfers from provinces who enable extra billing for publicly insured services.” (source)
  • Make it a criminal office to obstruct access to healthcare sites or to intimidate professionals. (See Race relations & Justice). (source)
  • Enact regulations that all Canadians have access to sexual and reproductive services; deny charity status to anti-abortion organizations “that provide dishonest counselling to women.”  (source, PBO analysis)
  • Help provinces and territories hire at least 7,500 nurses, nurse practitioners and family doctors, with $3.2 billion. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Work with provinces and territories to expand virtual health services with $400 million over four years. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Increase wages of personal support workers in the long-term care sector to a minimum of $25 an hour (See Retirement & Seniors) (source, PBO analysis)
  • Provide $3 billion to improve long-term care homes (See Seniors & Retirement) (source, PBO analysis)
  • Allocate $4.5 billion to provinces and territories for the delivery of mental health services. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Support Indigenous-led mental health and wellness services with $598 million. (See Indigenous affairs) (source)
  • Invest at least $600 million to fight the opioid crisis. (source)
  • Make the cost of in vitro fertilization an eligible health expense. (source)
  • Increase maximum debt relief to $60,000 that family doctors and residents, nurses and nurse practitioners are eligible under Canada Student Loans forgiveness plan. (source)
  • Allow health care workers at the start of their careers to claim an income tax deduction of up to $15,000 for setting up practices. (source)
  • “Provide free tampons and pads in federally regulated workplaces.” (source, PBO analysis)
  • Implement a Clinical Trials Fund with $250 million over three years to the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, as well as $30 million over two years to fund pediatric cancer research. (source)
  • Support people dealing with problematic substance use by adding $116 million over two years to the Substance Use and Addictions Program. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Establish a National Institute for Women’s Health Research with $20 million over five years. (source)
  • Support the creation of a national autism strategy with $15.4 million over two years. (source)
  • Construct eight plasma collection sites across country, with $20 million over three years. (source)
  • Provide better palliative and end-of-life care with $29.8 million over six years, and ensure the medical-assistance-in-dying framework is implemented consistently with $13.2 million over five years. (source)

Conservative platform

  • Within 100 days of forming the government, meet with provinces to propose a new agreement that would boost the annual growth rate of the Canada Health Transfer to at least six per cent, adding nearly $60 billion to the system over 10 years with $3.6 billion in the first five years. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Protect “the conscience rights of healthcare professionals.” (source)
  • Create a nationwide, three-digit suicide prevention hotline. (source)
  • Offer employers a tax credit of 25 per cent of the cost of additional mental health coverage for the first three years after adding it to employee benefit plans, for $29 million over five years. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Provide $1 billion over five years for Indigenous mental health programs. (See Indigenous affairs) (source, PBO analysis)
  • Create a pilot program to provide $150 million over three years in grants to nonprofits and charities that deliver mental health and wellness programs. (source)
  • Invest $325 over three years to create 1,000 residential drug treatment beds and build 50 recovery community centres. (source)
  • Reinstate the 10-day waiting period for medical assistance in dying, restore the requirement for two independent witnesses to be present and repeal the provision of Bill C-7 that allows medical assistance in dying for patients with mental health challenges. (source)
  • Double direct federal investments in palliative care. (source)
  • Harmonize ICU training to ensure that ICU credentials are transferable among jurisdictions. (source)

NDP platform

  • Establish prescription drug coverage for every Canadian citizen and permanent resident starting in 2022, for $38.5 billion over four years. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Work with provinces to develop public infrastructure for secure, accessible virtual health care. (source)
  • End private, for-profit long-term care homes (See Retirement & Seniors) (source)
  • Set national standards for long-term care homes and home care (See Retirement & Seniors). (source)
  • Make it a criminal office to “harass or block someone from accessing healthcare.” (See Race relations & Justice) (source)
  • Identify impending gaps and make a plan to recruit and train the medical professionals who will be needed. (source)
  • Regulate natural health products with stand-alone legislation. (source)
  • Create a federal dental care plan for uninsured families making less than $90,000 a year. (source)
  • Establish mental health care for uninsured Canadians, for $6.1 billion over five years. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Establish a national perinatal mental health strategy to support families before and after the birth of a child. (source)
  • Declare a public health emergency on the opioid crisis. (source)
  • Work with provinces and healthcare professionals to create a safe supply of medically regulated alternatives to street drugs, support overdose prevention sites and expand access to treatment on demand. (source)
  • Launch an investigation into the role of drug companies in the crisis and seek financial compensation for the public costs. (source)
  • Strengthen the Accessibility Act to cover all federal agencies equally, with the power to make and enforce accessibility standards quickly. (source)
  • Expand income security programs so that everyone with a disability has a guaranteed livable income. (source)
  • Develop and implement a national Autism strategy to coordinate support for research, provide access to needs-based service, promote employment and expand housing options. (source)
  • Enforce the Canada Health Act to require all provinces to make medical and surgical abortion available in all areas of the country. (source)
  • End the ban on blood donation by men who have sex with other men, moving instead to behaviour-based screening based on public health evidence. (source)
  • Work with provinces to ensure equal access to gender-confirming surgery and medication and that these services are covered by public health plans. (source)

Green platform

  • Create a national safe supply as a harm reduction tool to prevent illicit drug overdoses. (source)
  • Fund a universal pharmacare program, rolling out a formulary by 2025. (source)
  • Decriminalize possession of illegal drugs for personal use; declare the “drug poisoning crisis” a national public health emergency; automatically pardon and expunge the police records of those previously convicted of possession of cannabis. (source)
  • Prioritize the expansion of mental health services through negotiations with the provinces and territories; up federal spending on community-based care. (source)
  • Reduce the length of drug patents. (source)
  • Provide free dental care for low-income Canadians through the medicare system. (source)
  • Impose a 10 per cent tax on sugary drinks. (source)
  • Create a universal pharmacare program. (source)

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Liberal platform

  • Require a vaccine mandate for federal public servants plus for employees of federally regulated air, rail and marine transportation sectors as well as commercial passengers on planes, interprovincial trains and overnight marine vessels. (source)
  • Introduce legislation to “ensure that every business and organization that decides to require a proof of vaccination from employees or customers can do so without fear of a legal challenge.” (source)
  • Support vaccine mandates in provinces and territories through a $1 billion COVID-19 Proof of Vaccine fund. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Procure and distribute for free COVID-19 booster shots and next-generation vaccines. (source)
  • Top up the Safe Return to Class Fund with $100 million for ventilation improvements. (source)
  • Aid trauma and PTSD programs for populations at highest risk of COVID-19 trauma with $50 million over two years. (source)
  • Invest $100 million in the study of “long COVID,” especially for vulnerable groups such as children. (source)
  • Allocate up to $375 million to our international COVID-19 response, especially health issues in developing nations (source)
  • Give $2.2 billion over seven years to build and expand the life sciences sector including $60 million for the Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization and $45 million to the Stem Cell Network. (source)
  • Support large airports invest in COVID-19 testing infrastructure with $82.5 million. (source)
  • Help the Canadian Air Transport Security Authority improve screening practices to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 with $271 million. (source)

Conservative platform

  • Require unvaccinated federal workers to pass a COVID-19 rapid test each day as well as have unvaccinated passengers on buses, planes and other transports to show the results of a recent negative test or pass a rapid test. (source)
  • Call an immediate public inquiry to examine the government’s pandemic response. (source)
  • Overhaul Canada’s Pandemic Plan and preparedness to include domestic vaccine research, trials development and manufacturing capacity and readiness; and to include a focus on infectious diseases and bioterrorism threats; create the “homegrown development and production” of vaccines by Canadian firms, “such as Providence Therapeutics, Sanofi, Medicago and others.” (source). (source)
  • Overhaul the National Emergency Stockpile System, federal lab testing processes, public health intelligence gathering systems and risk communications infrastructure. (source)
  • Develop a national system for sharing data across jurisdictions on pathogen transmission, immunity levels, and vaccination rates. (source
  • End the importation of and trade in wild or exotic animals and their products that carry an elevated risk of spreading zoonotic diseases. (source)
  • Establish a threat level warning system to assign risk levels from a scale of 1-5 for Canadians when a new virus is detected. (source)
  • Assign ultimate responsibility for the Public Health Agency of Canada to a qualified physician and public health expert with field and front line experience. (source)
  • Restore the dual leadership role of the National Microbiology Lab in Winnipeg, within the Public Health Agency of Canada, and maintain access security and stringent screening protocols at the lab. (source)
  • Reinstate the tariff on imported personal protective equipment (PPE); help manufacturing of essential public health equipment and pharmaceuticals in Canada by having governments favour Canadian producers. (source)
  • Prevent travellers from areas where new variants are detected from entering Canada. (source)
  • Require a rapid test (or a PCR) test of everyone entering Canada. (source)
  • Speed up the approval of rapid tests approved by other jurisdictions, such as the U.K., U.S., the European Union and Taiwan. (source)
  • Stop the export of deadly viruses to “jurisdictions that cannot be trusted.” (source)
  • Restart the Global Public Health Intelligence Network. (source)

NDP platform

  • Enforce a vaccine mandate for federal workers, with the government offering paid leave to get the shots; expect collective agreements “include a process for progressive discipline, up to and including termination.” (source) Establish a Crown corporation in charge of domestic vaccine production. (source)
  • Protect in law the independence of the Chief Public Health Officer and require them to report annually to Parliament with recommendations to improving the country’s emergency preparedness. (source)

Green platform

  • Establish a public inquiry to investigate the response to the current pandemic by all levels of government to see what occurred and what can be improved. (source)
  • Make sure Canada has a “robust capacity” for manufacturing pharmaceuticals and enough domestic production for a stockpile of PPE. (source)

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Liberal platform

  • Commit $1 billion to developing a national school nutritious meal program. (source)
  • Create a No-Waste Food Fund to “eliminate, reduce, or repurpose” food waste. (source)
  • Amend the Nutrition North Canada program to “make the program more transparent and responsive to Inuit needs.” (source)
  • Introduce additional restrictions on the commercial marketing of food and beverages aimed at children; and establish new labels for food packaging to “promote healthy eating.” (source)
  • Commit $100 million to the Emergency Food Security Fund in 2021-22 to go towards food banks and local food organizations that operated throughout the pandemic (in addition to $100 million committed in April 2020).

Conservative platform

  • Improve the Nutrition North Canada program so that it achieves the goal of ensuring northerners have access to affordable, healthy food. (source)
  • Implement a food security strategy that would include redirecting federal agricultural research funding to partnering with the private sector to grow more crops in Canada year-round in greenhouses. (source)
  • Work with governments and communities in Nunatsiavut, Nunavut, Nunavik, and the Inuvialuit Settlement Region to develop community-based marine fisheries. (source)
  • Lower food prices by increasing the maximum fine for price-fixing food from $24 million to $100 million, introducing criminal penalties for executives price-fixing food, and implementing a “tough code of conduct” to protect suppliers and promote grocery competition. (source)

NDP platform

  • Partner with provinces and municipalities to establish a national school nutrition program that will provide every child with healthy food and food literacy skills and make culturally appropriate food available.  (source)
  • Create a National Food Policy that includes labelling and traceability. (source)
  • Support Indigenous food sovereignty especially to aid access to healthy food. (source)
  • Reform the Nutrition North Canada subsidy program. (source)
  • Use initiatives such as food hubs and community-supported agriculture to connect local farmers to consumers. (source)
  • Create a food waste strategy. (source)
  • Protect the supply management agricultural sector (See Agriculture) (source)

Green platform

  • “Support research, development, and investments in local markets and urban agriculture to increase access to local food.” (source)
  • “Support the development of a food waste strategy.” (source)
  • Improve food security in Northern communities through “consulting with residents on Arctic farming” and “working with non-profit groups to build greenhouses or hydroponic towers”; fund education programs in horticulture and nutrition. (source)
  • Replace “one-third of Canada’s food imports with domestic production”; adopt a food system that prioritizes local and regional food systems. (source)

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Liberal platform

  • Introduce First Home Savings Accounts for Canadians under 40 to save up to $40,000 toward their first house; deposits and withdrawals are tax-free. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Give $1 billion in grants and loans to develop rent-to-own projects. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Add the option of a deferred mortgage loan to the First Time Home Buyer Incentive. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Reduce the price of home insurance by the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp. by 25 per cent; increase the mortgage insurance purchase maximum to $1.25 million and index to inflation.  (source)
  • Double the Home Buyers Tax Credit claim amount to $10,000. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Spend $2 billion on Indigenous housing (See Indigenous affairs) (source)
  • “Build, preserve or repair” 1.4 million homes in four years by putting $4 billion in a Housing Accelerator Fund to support municipalities’ housing efforts; increasing the funding to the National Housing Co-investment fund to $2.7 billion over four years; and introducing a Multigenerational Home Renovation tax credit for families adding secondary units for relatives. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Introduce a Home Buyers’ Bill of Rights that will ban blind bidding, create a legal right to a home inspection and ban new foreign ownership of homes for two years. (source)
  • Have landlords report rent received before and after renovations and impose a surtax on “excessive” rent to stop renovictions. (source)
  • Introduce a national tax of one per cent annually on the value of non-resident, non-Canadian owned residential real estate that is vacant or underused (source)
  • Create an anti-flipping tax for residential properties sold less than 12 months after purchase. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Reallocate $300 million from the Rental Construction Financing Initiative to help convert excess commercial property to rental housing. (source)

Conservative platform

  • Build a million homes in three years by switching 15 per cent of federal real estate to housing; incentivize the private sector to give land for affordable housing; require higher density near federally funded transit. (source)
  • Alter the “mortgage stress test” requirements to help contractors, casual workers etc.; remove stress test for homeowners switching mortgage lenders.  (source)
  • Create a federal residential ownership registry. (source)
  • Stop foreigners who don’t live in or aren’t moving to Canada from owning homes for two years. (source)
  • Increase the Home Accessibility Tax Credit claim amount to $10,000 per person. (source)

NDP platform

  • Work toward ending homelessness within a decade. (source)
  • Spend $14 billion building 500,000 units of affordable housing in the next 10 years—half of them in the next five. (source)
  • Establish “fast-start funds” to streamline the application process to stimulate the creation of more co-op and non-profit social housing. (source)
  • Enact a 20 per cent Foreign Buyer’s Tax on the sale of homes to non-Canadian citizens or permanent residents. (source)
  • Provide up to $5,000 in annual rent subsidies for families (source)
  • Tighten rules on loans by the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation to help stop “renovictions.” (source)
  • Waive the federal portion of the GST/HST on the construction of new affordable rental units. (source)
  • Reintroduce 30-year terms for mortgages backed by the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation for “entry-level homes,” which the party says will allow for smaller monthly payments. (source)
  • Double the Home Buyer’s Tax Credit claim amount to $10,000. (source)
  • Provide model co-ownership agreements and offer CMHC-backed mortgages for co-ownership of homes. (source)
  • Establish a “public beneficial ownership registry” to increase transparency about property ownership, with the aim of fighting money laundering, and require the reporting of suspicious transactions. (source)

Green platform

  • Apply tax on corporate owners of unoccupied residences, in addition to currently taxed foreign homeowners. (source)
  • Redefine the formula for “affordable” housing. (source)
  • Appoint a Minister of Housing (source)
  • Appoint a federal housing advocate (source)
  • Declare homelessness and housing “national emergencies” (source)
  • Build and acquire at least 300,000 units of “deeply affordable” housing in the next 10 years; help build and operate 50,000 supportive housing units in the next decade. (source)
  • Spend one per cent of GST on housing and municipal infrastructure. (source)
  • Keep the eviction moratorium in place until the pandemic is over. (source)
  • Close loopholes that allow foreign investors to conceal the names of beneficial owners of Canadian properties. (source)
  • Increase the “empty home” tax on foreign and corporate residential property owners. (source)
  • Increase the Home Renovation Tax Credit amount from $10,000 per household to a per-person amount. (source)Redefine the formula for “affordable” housing. (source)
  • Boost housing benefits, a federal-provincial program for rental assistance (source)
  • Appoint a Minister of Housing (source)
  • Appoint a federal housing advocate (source)
  • Declare homelessness and housing “national emergencies” (source)
  • Build and acquire at least 300,000 units of deeply affordable co-op and non-profit housing over 10 years (source)

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Liberal platform

  • Aid large-scale clean energy technology projects with $1 billion over five years. (source)
  • Create a Critical Battery Minerals Centre of Excellence (See Climate Change and Environment). (source)
  • Support public transit agencies with their switch to zero-emission buses. (source)
  • Help create the Centre for Innovation and Clean Energy in British Columbia, with $35 million. (source)
  • Support hydro and grid interconnection projects in the North with $40.4 million over three years, and invest $36 million over three years for sustainable clean energy projects in Indigenous communities. (source)

Conservative platform

  • Introduce a Renewable Natural Gas Mandate (See Climate Change and Environment). (source)
  • Introduce a tax credit for Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage technology (See Climate Change and Environment). (source)
  • Develop a National Clean Energy Strategy. (source)
  • Implement a Liquified Natural Gas export strategy. (source)

NDP platform

Green platform

  • No construction of new oil and gas pipelines, including an end to the federally owned Trans Mountain pipeline expansion. (source, source)
  • Invest in comprehensive retraining and apprenticeship programs to repurpose skills of industrial trades workers for jobs in the renewable energy sector. (source)
  • Energy efficiency retrofit program for all buildings. (source)

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Liberal platform

  • Reduce emissions by 40-45 per cent by 2030, compared to 2005 levels. (source)
  • Have energy firms reduce methane emissions by 75 per cent or more below 2012 levels by 2030. (source)
  • Achieve a “100 percent net-zero emitting electricity system by 2035.” (source)
  • Promote zero-emission vehicles by providing $5,000 toward the purchase of such a car for more than 500,000 Canadians; require more than half of passenger vehicles sold be zero emission by 2030 and 100 per cent by 2035; build 50,000 more zero-emission vehicle chargers. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Implement a Low-Carbon Fuel Procurement Program for the federal government, with $227.9 million over eight years. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Build a net-zero electricity grid by 2035. (source)
  • Phase out thermal coal exports by 2030. (source)
  • Recycle plastic bottles through deposit-return systems with a target of 90 per cent by 2029. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Require all plastic packaging contain 50 per cent recycled material by 2030; make producers of waste responsible for collecting and recycling. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Create a “census of the environment” to monitor trends, with $25.6 million over five years to Statistics Canada. (source)
  • Invest $5 billion over seven years in the Net Zero Accelerator to help companies reduce emissions (source)
  • Aid clean energy technology projects (See Energy) (source)
  • Reduce by 50 per cent the corporate and small business income tax rates for firms that manufacture zero-emission technologies. (source)
  • Train 1,000 new community-based firefighters and purchase equipment because of extreme weather events. (source, PBO analysis)
  • End cosmetic testing on animals by 2023 and toxicity testing by 2035. (source)
  • Create 10 new national parks and 10 marine conservative areas in the next five years; provide $2.3 billion over five years to achieve the 2025 target of protecting 25 per cent of the nation’s area, plus $976.8 million to meet the same goal in the oceans (source, PBO analysis)
  • Protect old growth forests in British Columbia by reaching an agreement with the province to expand those areas and through a $50 million B.C. Old Growth Nature Fund. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Establish a Natural Infrastructure Fund for natural spaces and crossings to support biodiversity, such as in Toronto’s ravines, with $200 million over three years. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Change the Climate Action Incentive payment to a quarterly payment (See Taxes). (source)
  • Return to farmers in “backstop” jurisdictions—including Alberta and Ontario—an estimated $100 million from the price of pollution. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Issue federal green bonds, with a target of $5 billion, to fund projects such as conservation and green infrastructure. (source)
  • Improve the commercial viability of carbon capture, utilization and storage technologies, with $319 million over seven years. (source)
  • Help homeowners undertake energy efficiency upgrades through interest-free loans of up to $40,000, through giving $4.4 billion over five years to the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Enhance wildlife preparedness in national parks with $100.6 million over five years, plus another $28.7 million to map areas in northern Canada at risk of wildfires. (source)
  • Stabilize and conserve wild Pacific salmon and create a Pacific salmon secretariat and restoration centre of expertise with $647.1 million over five years. (source)
  • Invest $1 billion over 10 years to fully meet the country’s obligations under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. (source)
  • Update the Canada Water Act to address Indigenous water rights, climate change and other issues. (source)
  • Have Crown corporations with at least $1 billion in assets report their climate-related financial risks as part of their corporate reporting as of 2022, with smaller organizations having until 2024. (source)

Conservative platform

  • Implement a national Personal Low Carbon Savings Account, a carbon-pricing scheme that would see Canadians paying a surcharge when they buy consumer fossil fuels, with the money going into a savings account earmarked for green purchases. (source)
  • Price carbon starting at $20/tonne and increasing to a cap of $50/tonne. (source)
  • Tie Canada’s industrial carbon price to that of the European Union and the United States, and based on progress towards Paris targets, be prepared to set industrial carbon prices on a path to $170/tonne by 2030. (source)
  • Study the imposition of a carbon border tariff which would reflect the amount of carbon emissions attributed to goods imported into Canada. (source)
  • Introduce a zero emission vehicle mandate based on British Columbia’s, requiring 30% of light duty vehicles sold to be zero emissions by 2030. (source)
  • Invest $1 billion in building out electric-vehicle manufacturing in Canada, including battery production, parts manufacturing, micro-mobility solutions and electric trucks. (source)
  • Invest $1 billion in deploying hydrogen technology including hydrogen vehicles. (source)
  • Work with the U.S. to set a standard for electric vehicle charging and add mandatory charging stations or wiring required for chargers to the national building code. (source)
  • Require every building where the federal government has employees or offers services to the public and provides parking to have a charging station by 2025. (source)
  • Introduce a Renewable Natural Gas Mandate, based on British Columbia’s policy, requiring 15 per cent of downstream consumption to be renewable by 2030. (source)
  • Finalize and improve Clean Fuel Regulations, with a low carbon fuel standard based on B.C.’s policy to achieve a 20 per cent reduction in carbon intensity for transport fuels. (source)
  • Pilot the use of Canadian renewable fuels by the Canadian Armed Forces. (source)
  • Introduce a tax credit to rapidly accelerate the deployment of carbon-capture, utilization and storage technology in the energy sector and other industries, with early mover bonus for facilities with tech in place by 2030. (source)
  • Invest an additional $3 billion by 2030 in natural climate solutions focused on management of forest, crop and grazing lands and restoration of grasslands, wetlands and forests. (source)
  • Provide tax relief to the first five facilities that use new technology that provides meaningful emissions reductions but is costly. (source)
  • Develop a National Clean Energy Strategy. (source)
  • Develop a Clean Buildings Plan, including a regulatory and financial framework that will facilitate Energy Savings Performance Contracting, with a bonus for retrofits completed by 2030. (source)
  • Implement a Liquified Natural Gas export strategy. (source)
  • Appoint a national disaster resilience advisor to the Privy Council Office. (source)
  • Establish a residential high risk flood insurance program. (source)
  • Devise a national climate adaptation strategy and a natural infrastructure plan. (source)
  • Fund continued building of the Trans-Canada Trail with $12.5 million a year. (source)
  • End the restrictions on exporting oil via tanks from B.C.’s northern coast. (source)
  • Change the impact assessment process for mining processes so that communities can’t cause “unnecessarily delays in providing approvals.” (source)
  • Reach a target of conserving 17 per cent of Canada’s land and water with a goal to work towards 25 per cent. (source)
  • Restore funding to the National Wetland Conservation Fund; the Recreational Fisheries Conservation Partnership Program; and the Lake Simcoe Clean-Up Fund. (source)
  • Ban the export of plastic waste unless the exporter proves that it will be recycled. (source)

NDP platform

  • Set a target of reducing carbon emissions to 50 per cent below 2005 levels by 2030, getting there by eliminating fossil fuel subsidies, enacting carbon budgets on a national and sectoral basis and redrawing the mandate of the Bank of Canada, the Export Development Canada Act and the Canada Pension Plan Investment Board Act to align them with a net-zero target. (source)
  • Retrofit all buildings in Canada by 2050, beginning with all buildings built before 2020 in the next 20 years, along with requiring large-scale building retrofits in all sectors. (source)
  • Create a National Crisis Strategy to help communities—particularly vulnerable, remote and Indigenous ones—reduce and react to climate risks and extreme weather, with long-term funding for adaptation, disaster mitigation and climate-resilient infrastructure. (source)
  • Permanently double the Canada Community-Building Fund and develop a public inner-city bus program. (source)
  • Set a target of net carbon-free electricity by 2030, ramping up to completely non-emitting electricity by 2040. (source)
  • Enact an Environmental Bill of Rights that enshrines the right to a healthy environment. (source)
  • Beef up the Canadian Environmental Protection Act to better protect people against toxic substances in common products like cosmetics. (source)
  • Immediately ban single-use plastics and protect workers in that sector by supporting a transition for these facilities to make new products. (source)
  • Enact new legislation to ban the export of plastic waste and reduce electronic waste by removing unnecessary restrictions preventing people from repairing devices. (source)
  • Launch a 10-year nature plan to reverse species loss and curb the import and domestic trade of wild animals. (source)
  • Force oil companies to pay to clean up inactive wells, creating jobs in the process. (source)
  • Develop a national food waste strategy to reduce the amount of food currently ending up in the garbage. (source)
  • Protect 30 per cent of the country’s land, freshwater and oceans by 2030. (source)
  • Offer low-interest loans to households making energy-efficient improvements, with targeted supports for low-income households and renters. (source)
  • Create a Civilian Climate Corps with jobs for young people performing conservation work such as restoring wetlands and planting billions of trees. (source)
  • Update the National Building Code to ensure that by 2025, every new building in Canada is net-zero. (source)
  • Establish a Canadian Climate Bank to boost investment in renewable energy, energy efficiency and low-carbon technology, support provinces interested in inter-connecting their power grids and implementing smart grid technology and support made-in-Canada manufacturing of renewable energy components and technology to scale up Canada’s clean energy industry. (source)
  • Create and fund a Climate Accountability Office to independently oversee federal climate progress, engage with the public and make recommendations on achieving targets. (source)
  • Appoint a Climate Emergency Committee of Cabinet and establish a Climate Emergency Secretariat in the PMO. (source)
  • Create an Office of Environmental Justice to address the disproportionate effects of environmental damage on low-income, racialized and otherwise marginalized communities. (source)

Green platform

  • Target 60 per cent reduction in GHG emission by 2030, with clear timelines. (source)
  • End new pipeline construction, fracking and oil and gas exploration projects and use those funds to invest in the infrastructure and green sectors. (source)
  • Guarantee that 100 per cent of electricity is produced with renewable sources by 2030. (source)
  • Aim to have net zero emissions as soon as possible including 100 per cent zero-emission vessels on inland waters by 2030 and oceans by 2040. (source)
  • Transition to green transportation by stopping the sale of internal combustion engine passenger vehicles by 2030; expanding the network of electric vehicle charging stations etc. (source)
  • Increase carbon taxes by $25 per tonne each year between 2022 and 2030. (source)
  • Ban non-essential single-use plastics by the end of 2021 and require plastic packaging to have at least half recycled content by 2030; use tax rebates, waivers and other legislative provisions to promote sustainable waste management. (source)
  • Require labelling of chemicals and GMOs in consumer products. (source)
  • Create green jobs training programs. (source)
  • Invest in research about the impact of climate change and related disasters. (source)
  • By 2030, protect at least 30 per cent of lands and freshwaters in each ecosystem in the country, and increase that to 50 per cent by 2050. (source)

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Liberal platform

  • Build housing for Indigenous communities with $2 billion over four years, including more than 50 per cent of that funding available for the 2022 construction season. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Support access to trauma-informed, Indigenous-led mental health and wellness services, for $2 billion over five years, including renewing funding of the Indian Residential Schools Health Supports Program and Crisis Line. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Manage the health impacts of climate change on First Nations and Inuit communities, including impacts of extreme weather events, with $125.2 million over four years. (source)
  • Provide more than $6 billion over five years to support infrastructure maintenance and construction in Indigenous communities, as well as continue First Nations’ community access to clean water and services with $125.2 million over four years. (source)
  • Invest in Indigenous early learning and child care with $1.4 billion over five years, including $264 million to repair and renovate existing centres and $420 million to build new ones. (source)
  • Increase the hiring of nurses and other medical professionals in isolated First Nations communities, at a cost of $354 million over five years. (source)
  • Reduce travel costs for Northerners without employer benefits by allowing claims of up to $1,200 in eligible expenses, for a cost of $125 million over five years. (source)
  • Expand the Aboriginal Entrepreneurship Program to support Indigenous-led businesses and communities, with an investment of $42 million over three years; invest $22 million over three years to increase the number of Indigenous women entrepreneurs. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Invest an additional $2.2 billion over five years to build a safer and more inclusive society, in response to the national tragedy of missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls, including $275 million to support Indigenous peoples’ reclamation of Indigenous languages and $126.7 million to promote health systems free of racism and discrimination. (source)
  • Provide $12.4 million over five years to Canadian Heritage to honour the survivors of residential schools and commemorate their legacy. (source)
  • Develop an Indigenous data governance strategy so as to unmask inequalities and ensure effective program deliveries with $81.5 million over three years. (source)
  • Negotiate agreements with interested Indigenous governments to enable them to raise tax revenues on their lands. (source)
  • Create opportunities in federal procurement for Indigenous and Black businesses (source)

Conservative platform

  • Expand the creation of Indigenous Protected and Conserved Areas (See Climate Change and Environment). (source)
  • Fund and implement Truth and Reconciliation Calls to Action 71 to 76 involving missing children. (source)
  • Work with Indigenous communities including by expanding the creation of Indigenous protected and conserved areas managed and stewarded by Indigenous guardians. (source)
  • Create a Canadian Indigenous Opportunities Corporation, with an initial $5 billion of capital, that would support First Nations and Inuit organizations seeking to purchase equity stakes in major projects. (source)
  • Provide $4 million over three years in targeted funding for the hiring and training of local and regional economic development officers, to encourage Indigenous business success; modernize the First Nations Land Management Act; and develop an Indigenous Business Mentorship Program. (source)
  • Spend $25 million on a national police support and community training program to reduce incarceration rates of Indigenous people. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Recognize safe drinking water as a fundamental human right and end long-term drinking water advisories; target high-risk water systems; work with Indigenous communities to ensure water systems investments are protected. (source)
  • Provide $1 billion over five years to boost funding for Indigenous mental health and drug treatment programs. (source, PBO analysis)

NDP platform

  • Fully implement the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s 94 Calls to Action. (source)
  • Work with Indigenous peoples to co-develop a National Action Plan for Reconciliation to ensure that the country’s laws, policies and practices follow human rights commitments, including cultural and land rights and rights to self-determination and self-government, and establish through legislation a National Council for Reconciliation to provide oversight and accountability for this process. (source)
  • Provide funds to communities to commemorate a National Day for Truth and Reconciliation. (source)
  • Fully fund the search for gravesites at former residential schools, along with the maintenance, commemoration, reburial and protection of residential school cemeteries and establishing memorials to those who died. (source)
  • Appoint a special prosecutor to pursue those who enacted harm in residential schools, and require churches and governments hand over all records that may assist in identifying children in unmarked graves or identifying those who were involved in their deaths. (source)
  • Implement the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal orders that require the government to equally fund child welfare services on reserves, work to implement the Spirit Bear Plan and immediately end government litigation against Indigenous children. (source)
  • Fully implement Jordan’s Principle, working with provinces to end delays and ensure access to health and educational services, end the court challenge and ensure Jordan’s Principle applies to children living off-reserve as well. (source)
  • Work with Indigenous communities to implement a co-developed and fully-funded Indigenous National Housing Strategy within the first 100 days in office. (source)
  • Expand financial assistance for post-secondary education for Indigenous children who grew up in care. (source)
  • Work with the provinces to establish Indigenous history education programs based on the TRC’s Calls to Action, and ensure the development and implementation of these programs is led by Indigenous people. (source)
  • Build a treatment centre for residents affected by long-term mercury exposure, and compensate families affected by mercury poisoning in Grassy Narrows. (source)
  • Create a Northern Infrastructure Fund to fast-track investment to improve infrastructure such as roads and broadband internet. (source)
  • Implement the Calls for Justice from the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls, including establishing a comprehensive plan to address violence and ensure that anyone fleeing it has access to culturally appropriate programming, emergency shelters and transitional housing. (source)
  • Ensure full gender equality for First Nations status so that Indigenous women can pass on the ability to qualify for Indian status registration to their children. (source)

Green platform

  • Ramp up renewable energy development in First Nations communities and on Indigenous lands, through partnerships with Indigenous people, and UNDRIP principles of self-determination (source).
  • Implement the calls for justice from the National Inquiry in Missing and Murdered Woman and Girls. (source)
  • Implement immediately all the calls to action from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission into residential schools. (source)
  • Provide sustainable  funding for new and existing Indigenous healing centres to address the harms caused by residential schools. (source)
  • Stop government’s fight against Canadian Human Rights Tribunal rulings on Indigenous children in care. (source)
  • Uphold Canada’s responsibilities toward Indigenous Peoples, including their inherent right to self-government: work with Indigenous Peoples to create an independent body to decide specific claims; ensure negotiations don’t involve assimilation or extinguishment of Indigenous rights and titles. (source)
  • “With Indigenous leaders at the helm, establish processes for self-governing Indigenous Peoples and nations to transition out from under the Indian Act, grounding this in the doctrine of free, prior, and informed consent.” (source)
  • Recognize non-Status and Métis Peoples as “Indigenous.” (source)
  • “Ensure that every First Nations, Métis and Inuit child has access to quality educational opportunities based on the expressed cultural, political and social priorities of the First Nations, Métis and Inuit governments, following meaningful consultation.” (source)
  • Ensure Indigenous Peoples can access education based on their cultural and social priorities; and can get health care needs met without bureaucratic delays regarding jurisdiction. (source)
  • Allow Indigenous organizations to access financing through CMHC for their housing needs.
  • “Leverage federal lands and real property for transfer to off-reserve Indigenous organizations to create housing and economic development opportunities.” (source)
  • Create a “For Indigenous, By Indigenous” housing support program for off-reserve Indigenous communities, including non-status Indigenous Peoples. (source)
  • Include Indigenous Peoples in the decision-making process for economic development; make sure “fair and consistent fisheries policies” are applied to all fishers. (source)
  • Provide all Indigenous youth with access to post-secondary education. (source)

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Liberal platform

  • Introduce legislation to make it a criminal offence to obstruct access to sites providing health services and to “intimidate or threaten any healthcare professional carrying out their professional duties.” (source)
  • Provide $21.5 million over five years for the Racialized Communities Legal Support Initiative. (source)
  • Add $216.4 million over five years to the Youth Justice Services Funding Program to support diversion programs and help the overrepresentation of Indigenous, Black and other racialized groups. (source)
  • Tighten weapons laws by limiting long gun magazines to five rounds; providing at least $1 billion to jurisdictions who ban handguns; requiring owners to sell banned assault weapons to the government or render them inoperable. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Combat harmful online content, including hate speech, with legislation introduced within the first 100 days; draft a plan for combating hate, including anti-Semitism and Islamophobia, by 2022. (source)
  • Reform the RCMP, including outside reviews of harassment and banning neck restraints and “use of tear gas or rubber bullets for crowd control.” (source)
  • Reduce pardon application fees and create an online application portal with $88.2 million over five years. (source)
  • Amend the Judges Act to freeze the pension entitlements of a judge, as of when the Canadian Judicial Council recommends that person’s removal from office. (source)
  • Re-establish the Law Commission of Canada to provide guidance on key legal questions. (source, PBO analysis)

Conservative platform

  • Ban conversion therapy and “clarify that the ban does not criminalize non-coercise conversations.” (source)
  • Make interfering with infrastructure or public transportation, including through some protests, a Criminal Code offence. (source)
  • Enact Clare’s Law, requiring police to notify a victim of a suspect’s relevant criminal history when they investigate a complaint of alleged domestic violence. (source)
  • Make the Rainbow Refugee Assistance Project permanent (See Immigration & Refugees). (source)
  • For women with children living in women’s shelters, expand the Canada Child Benefit by $500 per month per child for the first year and $250 per month per child for the second year. (source)
  • Implement legislation to require that people convicted of multiple human trafficking offences serve their sentences consecutively. (source)
  • Provide $100 million over five years to support training for non-provincial police forces in the areas of sexual exploitation, cyber-security and online offences and investigation of sexual offences. (source)
  • Hire an additional 200 RCMP officers in the GTA and Lower Mainland to focus on gangs and the smuggling of guns and drugs. (source)
  • Establish an entities list for criminal gangs. (source)
  • Amend the Firearms Act to clarify what activities require a firearms business license; and amend the Criminal Code to add aggravating factors to sentencing decisions for crimes involving the smuggling of firearms or their use for a dangerous purpose. (source)
  • Amend firearms laws to ensure that administrative expiries do not lead to criminal charges or seizures, but only prevent expired licence holders from obtaining new firearms or ammunition. (source)
  • Create a Criminal Code offence of “interference with an infrastructure facility or a public transportation system” to punish blockades of critical infrastructure. (source)
  • Provide $10 million a year to train judges and prosecutors on “the links between violence against animals and violence against people”; add animal cruelty as an aggravating factor in domestic violence prosecutions. (source)
  • Make it a criminal offence for Canadians to go abroad to benefit from human rights abuses, i.e. organ trafficking. (source)
  • Ban puppy mills; ban the importation of animals bred inhumanely and strengthen enforcement; and amend the Food and Drug Act to implement a cosmetic testing ban similar to the European Union’s. (source)

NDP platform

  • Ensure that all major cities have dedicated hate crime units in their local police forces and convene a national working group on online hate, ensuring that social media platforms are legally responsible for removing hateful and extremist content. (source)
  • Make it a Criminal Code offence to “harass or block someone from accessing healthcare and to make assault on healthcare workers an aggravating circumstance in sentencing.” (source)
  • Prioritize the collection of race-based data on health, employment, policing and other areas with the goal of improving outcomes, working with the province to improve data collection and develop reporting and accountability measures. (source)
  • Ban carding by the RCMP and work with local partners to end this practice in all jurisdictions in the country. (source)
  • Create a national task force to develop a “roadmap” to end the overrepresentation of Indigenous and Black Canadians in the federal prison population. (source)
  • Establish a First Nations justice and policing strategy and make policing an essential service with long-term, sufficient and equitable funding, while also allowing Inuit to independently oversee policing in Nunavut. (source)
  • Conduct a review of existing employment equity rules in order to close the radicalized wage gap, strengthening labour laws and ensuring equitable hiring in the federal public service and in federally regulated industries. (source)
  • Implement a federal use-of-force standard with a zero-tolerance policy for inappropriate use of force by police. (source)
  • Create a national action plan to deal with white supremacist and neo-Nazi organizations and dismantle far-right extremist groups, including establishing national standards for identifying and recording hate incidents and their movement through the justice system. (source)
  • Proactively expunge criminal records for people convicted of minor cannabis possession. (source)
  • Increase federal funding to legal aid programs across the country. (source)
  • Remove most mandatory minimum sentences, increase the sentencing discretion of judges, ensure bail programs are culturally appropriate, boost funding for restorative justice programs and ensure Gladue principles are upheld in court proceedings. (source)
  • Deliver a National Action Plan to end gender-based violence, with funding for shelters services and other programs in all areas of the country, especially those that have been lacking them. (source)
  • Ban conversion therapy and work with provinces and territories to eliminate this practice in all regions. (source)
  • Add sexual orientation, gender identity and expression to the Employment Equity Act to address the disadvantages—particularly for transgender people—in finding work. (source)
  • Establish a clear and permanent path to resettlement for LGBTQI2S+ refugees (See Immigration) (source)
  • Ensure that justices on the Supreme Court are bilingual. (source)

Green platform

  • Decriminalize possession of illicit drugs (See Health). (source)
  • Tackle systematic racism by Implementing all the recommendations from reports and commissions into systemic racism in Canada, including the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls as well as the UN Working Group of Experts on People of African descent on its Mission to Canada. (source)
  • Pass the National Strategy Respecting Environmental Racism and Environmental Justice Act (Bill C-230). (source)
  • Expand access to green spaces, especially for racialized communities and others facing systemic barriers. (source)
  • Limit the funding of the RCMP; create an independent oversight body; redirect funds from police forces to social and community services that serve to strengthen local communities; keep a database of police-use-of-force incidents, among other things, that tracks victims by race, ethnic background, national origin etc. (source)
  • Help combat discrimination against LGBTQI2+ workers in federal workplaces by supporting the recommendations in a report by the LGBT Purge Fund. (source)
  • “End the discriminatory, unscientific and homophobic blood ban.” (source)
  • Focus the criminal justice system on rehabilitation and mental health, especially regarding the disproportionately high incarceration rates of Indigenous, Black and other racialized peoples. (source)

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Liberal platform

  • Resettle 20,000 Afghans threatened by the Taliban, including women leaders, human rights workers, LGBTI individuals, family of previously resettled interpreters. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Amend the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act to give the minister the authority to help select permanent resident candidates who best meet the needs of the labour market. (source)
  • Eliminate citizen application process fees for permanent residents who have obtained the requisite criteria. (source, PBO analysis)
  • “Introduce electronic applications for family reunification.” (source)
  • Develop a digital platform to replace the Global Case Management System for the immigration system as of 2023, spending $428.9 million over five years. (source)
  • Fund migrant worker-centric programs and services, with $49.5 million over three years. (source)
  • Increase workplace inspections and ensure rights of temporary foreign workers are respected, spending $54.9 million over three years. (source)

Conservative platform

  • Create an efficiency mechanism where those waiting for an application to be reviewed can pay a fee for expedited processing; the revenues would be directed towards hiring additional people to reduce the overall wait times. (source)
  • Move the infrastructure of immigration online and record all interactions between immigration officers and applicants; use remote meeting technology to match applicants with immigration officers who best understand the cultural context of the applicant; allow applicants to make minor corrections to applications. (source)
  • Launch a Credential Recognition Task Force to develop new credential recognition strategies, including pre-qualification. (source)
  • Replace government-assisted refugee places with private and joint sponsorship places, meaning that all refugees arriving in Canada would do so under private or joint sponsorship programs, except in cases of emergency or specific programs; and broaden the definition of “refugee” to allow sponsorship directly from countries of origin. (source)
  • Make the Rainbow Refugee Assistance Project a permanent government program. (source)
  • Amend the Safe Third Country Agreement with the United States to remove the option for people to claim asylum in Canada if they cross into the country outside a legal point of entry. (source)
  • Give greater autonomy to Quebec over immigration to ensure a higher proportion of immigrants settling in Quebec speak French, including in the family reunification category; provide full compensation for the housing of asylum seekers who crossed outside legal points of entry. (source)

NDP platform

  • End the cap on family reunification applications to sponsor parents and grandparents and reduce the backlogs there. (source)
  • Provide government regulation for the immigration consultant industry. (source)
  • Establish a clear and permanent path to resettlement for LGBTQI2S+ refugees to replace the current patchwork system that deals with emergency cases. (source)

Green platform

  • End the Safe Third Country Agreement with the United States regarding asylum seekers. (source)
  • Create better pathways to permanent residency for temporary foreign and frontline workers. (source)
  • Address the expense and bureaucratic delays involved in getting citizenship or residency. (source)

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Liberal platform

  • Modernize the federal unclaimed assets regime by making it easier for Canadians to be matched with their unclaimed assets, such as bank accounts, and expanding it to include terminated federally regulated pension plans as well as bank accounts in foreign denominations. (source)
  • Update the Fiscal Stabilization Program for provinces facing sudden drops in revenues that will nearly triple the maximum payment to $170 per person, as of 2019-20. (source)
  • Give Statistics Canada $41.3 million over six years to improve its data collection on supportive care, primary care, and pharmaceuticals, as well as update its infrastructure; and $25.6 million over five years to create a Census of the Environment; and $172 million over five years to implement a plan to fill data gaps. (source)
  • Reduce internal trade barriers and work toward a repository of accessible internal trade data to identify barriers, including licensing, at a cost of $21 million over three years. (source)
  • Strengthen the Competition Bureau’s enforcement capabilities with $96 million over five years. (source)
  • Create a Data Commissioner to ensure personal data is used responsibly, at a cost of $17.6 million over five years, and provide $8.4 million over five years to the Standards Council of Canada for industry-wide data standards. (source)

Conservative platform

  • Implement an Equalization Rebate that gives $5 billion back to provinces, including $4 billion for Alberta. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Lower the threshold for provinces to apply for federal relief when revenues drop sharply. For resource revenue, trigger funding with a 40 per cent drop (down from 50 per cent); and for non-resource revenue, a three per cent drop (down from five per cent). The changes would be retroactive to 2015, making Newfoundland and Labrador immediately eligible for $70 million. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Have the Competition Bureau investigate bank fees. (source)
  • Establish a technology task force within the Competition Bureau to investigate “whether dominance and anti-competitive behaviour of big technology giants is damaging to Canadian industry.” (source)
  • Enact legislation to strengthen the Lobbying Act and Conflict of Interest Act; Increase monetary penalties in the Conflict of Interest Act to a maximum of $50,000, with the fine proportionate to the severity of the offence and the offender’s history and personal net worth. (source)
  • Amend the Code of Conduct for Members of Parliament to prevent them from collecting speaking fees while serving in the House of Commons. (source)
  • Amend the Canada Evidence Act to allow the RCMP to seek, by federal court order, information protected by cabinet confidence if it is relevant to a criminal investigation. (source)
  • Introduce a Foreign Agents Registry Act that would require the registration of individuals and companies acting as agents of foreign principals engaged in activities including “lobbying, policy development, advertising and grassroots mobilization.” (source)
  • Make it an offence for an entity that has spent more than $100,000 in a year on political activity of any kind to receive foreign donations of any amount; and prohibit any entity that receives more than 2.5 per cent of its total donations from foreign sources during the year before the writ period from advertising during the writ or pre-election period. (source)
  • Increase monetary penalties in the Conflict of Interest Act to a maximum of $50,000, with the fine proportionate to the severity of the offence and the offender’s history and personal net worth. (source)
  • Move the Scientific Research & Experimental Development program from the CRA to Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada, simplify the application process and make it easier for software development to qualify. (source)

NDP platform

  • Introduce legislation to encourage political parties to run more women candidates. (source)
  • Enhance the Action Plan for Official Languages to improve access to services, including working with provinces to improve minority language education and attracting more French-speaking immigrants to communities across the country. (source)
  • Modernize the Official Languages Act to strengthen oversight and accountability, expand language rights and endure that minority language communities are consulted about decisions. (source)
  • Enact tougher penalties within the Conflict of Interest Act and fully ban cash-for-access events to prohibit government officials from accepting private donations from anyone with private interest in government decisions. (source)
  • Prohibit corporations facing criminal charges from lobbying elected officials. (source)
  • Work with provinces toward abolishing the Senate, and in the meantime change the rules so that unelected Senators can’t hold up legislation that has been already adopted by Members of Parliament. (source)
  • Introduce an ethical, social and environmental screen on government procurement. (source)
  • Empower the Auditor General to review government advertising to ensure it is non-partisan. (source)
  • Bring in mixed-member proportional representation voting within the first mandate, establishing an independent citizen’s assembly to recommend the best way to implement this; after Canadians experience voting under the new system, call a referendum to confirm the choice. (source)
  • Lower the voting age to 16. (source)
  • Update privacy legislation to include a digital bill of privacy rights and boost the power of the Privacy Commissioner to make and enforce orders and enact penalties. (source)
  • Establish a Service Guarantee in which government departments must establish and publish “binding service standards” for programs such as Employment Insurance, veterans support, Indigenous services, passports and Canada Revenue Agency call centres; Ministers would be held responsible for these targets. (source)
  • Enact legislation to prevent credit and debit card companies from selling consumers’ personal information. (source)
  • Create a Fair Gasoline Prices Watchdog to investigate complaints about pump prices, and boost the Competition Bureau’s ability to investigate anti-competitive activity in the gas market. (source)

Green platform

  • Protect the French language “as part of Canada’s identity, as well as Quebec’s right to take measures in this regard.” (source)
  • Order a full legal review of Quebec’s Bill 96 to “clarify whether there are any constitutional concerns.” (source)
  • Update insolvency legislation to “extend super-priority to the unfunded pension liability.” (source)
  • “Require political parties to tell the truth: Give power to the Commissioner of Canada Elections to oversee political advertising during elections and referenda, to ensure that political advertising is subject to the same type of ‘truth in advertising’ regulation that already applies to businesses.” (source)
  • Create a Citizens’ Assembly on Democratic Renewal to recommend ideas regarding how to modernize the electoral system; lower the voting age to 16; and online and mandatory voting. (source)
  • Enhance the Conflict of Interest Act; allow independent oversight of MPs’ salaries and expenses; bring greater transparency to the Lobbying Act; enhance whistle-blower protections in the public service. (source)

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Liberal platform

  • Address sexual misconduct and gender-based violence in the Canadian Armed Forces with $236.2 million over five years, including free independent legal advice to victims. (source)
  • Modernize the North Warning System and NORAD. (source)
  • Maintain an additional six fighter aircraft and a frigate with the NATO Readiness Initiative, for $541.2 million over five years. (source)

Conservative platform

  • Pilot use of renewable fuels by Canadian Armed Forces (See Climate Change and Environment). (source)
  • “Appoint a Minister for Defence Procurement with real power to make decisions.” (source)Order a service-wide independent investigation into sexual misconduct, during which general and flag officer promotions and salary increases will be suspended. (source)
  • Ensure future sexual misconduct complaints are made to an external independent body outside the chain of command. (source)
  • Make the CAF/DND ombudsperson an independent officer of Parliament. (source)
  • Harmonize trade training in the Armed Forces with Red Seal Qualifications to allow skilled workers to transition easily to the civilian economy. (source)
  • Expand the Canadian Rangers in number and mandate; complete the Nanisivik Naval Facility on Baffin Island and develop a new Arctic naval base at Churchill, manitoba; deploy new autonomous vehicles for Arctic surveillance; launch low earth orbit satellites for telecommunications and Arctic defence. (source)
  • Expand Canada’s contributions to NATO missions in Latvia and the Baltic Sea; intensify the CAF training mission in Ukraine; create a NATO Centre of Excellence for Arctic Defence at the Resolute Bay CAF Training Centre; ensure active Canadian participation in NATO training missions and NATO Centres of Excellence in cybersecurity, strategic communications and energy security. (source)

NDP platform

  • Renew the priority on advancing multilateral peacekeeping around the world. (source)
  • Bring domestic search and rescue response times up to international standards and ensure they are capable of serving the needs of the North. (source)
  • Oppose the privatization of services on Canadian Armed Forces bases. (source)
  • Make mental health supports for military members and their families a priority. (source)
  • Implement the recommendations in the Deschamps Report on sexual harassment and assault in the military, including establishing independent oversight and accountability. (source)

Green platform

  • Implement the recommendations of the Deschamps report into sexual misconduct and harassment in the Canadian Armed Forces. (source)
  • Reassess Canada’s membership in NATO and other military alliances. (source)
  • Ratify the Treaty to Abolish Nuclear Weapons. (source)

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Liberal platform

  • Build two Arctic ice breakers—one in Quebec, one in B.C. —with at least one ship ready by 2030. (source)
  • Give $105.3 million over five years for Transport Canada to continue its work with partners for the Known Traveller Digital Identity pilot project. (source)
  • Top up the Disaster Mitigation and Adaptation Fund with $1.4 billion over 12 years, including $670 million for new small projects, and 10 per cent for Indigenous recipients. (source)
  • Complete flood maps for higher-risk areas with $63.8 million over three years (source)
  • Introduce touchless and automated interactions at the border, and modernize other procedures, including pre-clearance pilot projects in the United States. (source)

Conservative platform

  • Double funding for the Security Infrastructure Program and allow funding to be used for a broader list of expenses, including paying security guards and training volunteers. (source)
  • Establish a permanent task force to address foreign interference that will address disinformation and influence operations. (source)

NDP platform

  • Work with international allies and enhance real-time oversight of security services while respecting the Charter and privacy rights of Canadians in dealing with foreign interference and espionage, terrorism and cybercrime. (source)
  • Strengthen protection for Canadians who are victims of foreign interference and threats. (source)

Green platform

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Liberal platform

  • Build dedicated passenger rail tracks in the Toronto-to-Quebec City corridor for high frequency trains; procurement process launching in fall 2021. (source)
  • Support high-speed internet access in rural and remote areas with $1 billion over six years for the Universal Broadband Fund (source)
  • Recapitalize the National Trade Corridors Fund with $1.9 billion over four years to aid upgrades to transport routes, with 15 per cent dedicated to the North. (source)
  • Upgrade satellite ground-based infrastructure and plan for new satellites with $90 million over 11 years. (source)
  • Conduct the first National Infrastructure Assessment to identify needs and priorities, for $22.6 million over four years. (source)
  • Renovate small craft harbours with $300 million over two years. (source)

Conservative platform

  • Eliminate and replace the Canada Infrastructure Bank. (source)
  • Provide the funding needed to complete the extension of the Surrey Langley SkyTrain. (source)
  • Facilitate Energy Savings Performance Contracting (See Climate Change and Environment). (source)
  • Invest in northern infrastructure, including the Grays Bay Port and Road Project connecting Nunavut and NWT; the Kivalliq Hydro-Fibre Line; the Tuktoyaktuk road and port; a large-scale clean power project in the Yukon. (source)

NDP platform

  • Restore door-to-door mail delivery “to all communities that lost it under the Conservative government.” (source)
  • Declare high-speed internet an essential service and ensure every Canadian has access to reliable high-speed broadband within four years, on the way to establishing a Crown corporation to deliver “quality, affordable telecom services” everywhere. (source)
  • Develop an inter-city bus system to replace lost Greyhound routes. (source)
  • Support creating high-frequency rail along the Quebec-Windsor corridor (Note: no specific information was provided). (source)
  • Work with Canada Post to develop a “postal banking” model that would bring banking services to the 1,200 rural communities that have a post office but no financial services. (source)
  • Create a “new deal” for rural infrastructure programs to provide long-term predictable funding , along with increasing funding from the federal government to deal with the effects of climate change and disaster recovery. (source)

Green platform

  • End fossil fuel extraction by cancelling all pipeline projects, banning fracking, and new oil exploration projects; ending leasing of federal lands for fossil fuel production; end government subsidies; ban the export of U.S. coal through Canadian ports. (source)
  • Allocate one per cent of GST revenues to housing and infrastructure. (See Housing) (source)
  • Build electrified high-speed rail systems in the Toronto-Ottawa-Quebec City corridor as all as between Edmonton and Calgary. (source)
  • Add $150 million annually to the Universal Broadband Fund. (See Economy & Affordability) (source)

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Liberal platform

  • Provide a taxable $500 payment for Old Age Security pensioners who are at least 75 as of June 2022 and increase the maximum benefit by 10 per cent. (source)
  • Increase the survivor Canada (and Quebec) Pension Plan benefit by 25 per cent by working with provinces and territories. (source)
  • Provide $3 billion over five years, starting in 2022-23, to ensure provinces and territories provide a standard of care in their long-term care homes. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Increase the Guaranteed Income Supplement for seniors by $500 for singles and $750 for couples. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Double the Home Accessibility Tax Credit claim amount from $750 to $1,500 to keep seniors in their own homes. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Work with provinces and territories to train up to 50,000 new personal support workers in long-term care facilities and raise their wages to a minimum of $25 an hour. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Start the Aging Well at Home initiative with $90 million over three years to assist community organizations offer practical support to low-income and vulnerable seniors. (source)

Conservative platform

  • Create a Canada Seniors Care benefit for citizens “living with and taking care of” a parent that pays $200 monthly per household. (source)
  • Ensure pensioners are prioritized in bankruptcies or restructurings; prevent executive bonuses while a firm is being restructured or pension plans not fully funded. (source)
  • Mandate firms inform workers of the funding status of their pensions. (source)
  • Spent $3 billion over three years to renovate long-term care homes. (source)

NDP platform

  • Spend $5 billion on long-term care systems across the country in the first mandate and commit to increasing the Health Transfer. (source)
  • Develop national standards for home care and long-term care, regulated by the same principles as the Canada Health Act, with funding tied to meeting standards, and a basket of core home care services that would be covered by provincial insurance plans. (source)
  • End private, non-profit long-term care homes; create a national task force to transition all long-term care to non-profit within a decade, and immediately turn the Revera for-profit chain into a publicly managed entity. (source)
  • Ensure that unfunded pension liabilities and severance pay are top priorities when a company goes bankrupt. (source)
  • Stop companies from paying out dividends and bonuses when pensions are under-funded and create a mandatory industry-funded pension insurance program. (source)
  • Create a pension advisory commission to develop a long-term plan to enhance Old Age Security, boost the Guaranteed Income Supplement and strengthen the Canada Pension Plan. (source)
  • Make automatic enrolment in Old Age Security and Guaranteed Income Supplement retroactive. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Create a National Seniors Strategy working with the provinces to prioritize senior health care, reduce isolation and poverty, along with a funded national dementia strategy and an elder abuse prevention plan. (source)

Green platform

  • Place the long-term care system under the Canada Health Act so all in LTC homes have access to “quality, affordable care”; end the for-profit LTC business; carve a dedicated Seniors’ Care Transfer out of funding to the provinces and territories; boost the wages and training of workers. (source)
  • Develop and fund a National Dementia Strategy to improve the living conditions of patients and fund research. (source)

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Liberal platform

  • Build a $10-a-day day care system by committing up to $30 billion over five years, aiming for a 50 per cent cut in average fees by 2022 and to $10 a day in 5 years (outside of Quebec). (source, PBO analysis)
  • Give adoptive parents another 15 weeks of parental leave so that it matches the level of other new parents. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Help children with disabilities by improving the physical accessibility of child-care centres through funding of $29.2 million over two years. (source)
  • Invest in Indigenous early learning and child care (See Indigenous affairs.) (source)

Conservative platform

  • Change the Child Care Expense deduction into a refundable tax credit, worth up to 75 per cent of child care costs for lower income families; families with incomes of up to $150,000 can claim some benefits, for $2.6 billion over five years. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Allow parents to work up to $1,000 a month while on parental leave. (source)
  • Extend EI parental leave for up to eight weeks after the death of an infant. (source)
  • Enhance benefits to parents who adopt children. (source)

NDP platform

  • Provide relief funds to re-open non-profit childcare centres that closed during COVID-19. (source)
  • Work with the provinces to build a universal $10 per day childcare system (Note: there is no monetary figure attached to this pledge). (source)
  • Create a special new parental leave that allows parents to take a shorter leave at a higher financial replacement rate. (source)
  • Allow self-employed workers to opt-in to parental benefits at any point before taking leave. (source)
  • Double the length of parental leave for parents of multiples. (source)

Green platform

  • Boost federal funding of child care to at least one per cent of GDP annually. (source)

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Liberal platform

  • Increase the threshold for repayment assistance for student loans from $25,000 to $40,000 a year and reduce cap on monthly payments from 20 to 10 per cent of household income. (source)
  • Permanently wave federal interest on Canada Student Loans and Canada Apprentice Loans; increase to $50,000 the income threshold for repayment of Canada Student Loans. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Extend the doubling of the Canada Student Grants to $6,000 for full-time students until July 2023. (source)
  • Expand enhanced grants and repayment assistance for students whose disabilities are prolonged but not always permanent, at a cost of $429 over four years. (source)
  • Help keep vulnerable children and youth in school through after-school programs and other supports with a $118.4-million, two-year pilot expansion of federal investments. (source)
  • Help three million students gain coding and digital skills through CanCode, with $80 million over three years. (source)
  • Up the Eligible Educator School Supply Tax Credit from 15 to 25 per cent and expand its eligibility criteria. (source)
  • Add 1,000 Canada Research Chairs to “help attract and retain top talent at Canadian universities and support graduate research.” (source, PBO analysis)
  • Increase funding to $80 million a year for post-secondary institutions in minority languages. (source)
  • Transform Aurora College in the Northwest Territories to a polytechnic university, with $8 million over two years. (source)

Conservative platform

NDP platform

  • Remove interest permanently on all federal student loans. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Give new graduates a five-year moratorium on student loan payments. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Permanently double non-repayable Canada Student Grants. (source)
  • Eliminate interest from federal student loans and introduce a “targeted debt forgiveness program that forgives up to $20,000 in student debt. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Work with provinces to cap and reduce tuition fees, “building toward” making post-secondary education free and part of the public education system. (source)

Green platform

  • Help students afford post-secondary education by cancelling all federally-held student loan debt and abolishing tuition; the latter promise for “Education For All” is estimated at $10.2 billion. (source)

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Liberal platform

  • Provide $45 million over two years for a pilot program aimed at reducing veteran homelessness through rent subsidies and social services. (source)
  • Finance a program to cover mental health care costs of veterans with PTSD and other mental issues while their benefit applications are processed, with $140 million over five years. (source)

Conservative platform

  • Implement a Lifelong Disability Benefit for moderately to severely injured veterans; make transfer to the reserve forces easier; implement a strategy to combat veteran homelessness; cover the cost of PTSD service dogs for veterans; complete the Afghanistan War Memorial. (source)

NDP platform

  • Provider one caseworker for every 25 veterans to reduce backlogs and improve service. (source)
  • Automatically carry forward all annual lapsed spending for Veterans Affairs and use it to improve services. (source)
  • Make the position of Veterans Ombudsman fully independent so they can report directly to Canadians. (source)

Green platform

 

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Liberal platform

  • Invest $1.9 billion to help the tourist industry recover from the pandemic (See Small business) (source, PBO analysis)
  • Allow artists to have resale rights by amending the Copyright Act. (source)
  • Provide $300 million over two years for the Recovery Fund for Heritage, Arts, Culture, Heritage and Sport Sectors, plus $70 million over three years for the Canada Music Fund and $15 million for arts and heritage institutions to meet public health guidelines. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Update the Broadcasting Act to include foreign streaming giants; modernize federal organizations such as TeleFilm, and the Canada Media Fund.(source)
  • Help reduce CBC/Radio-Canada’s reliance on advertising by giving $400 million over four years. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Revitalize farmers’ markets, main streets and other local gathering sites with $500 million over two years. (source)
  • Provide $28.7 million over five years for Parks Canada Agency to implement legislation that will create a legal obligation to protect the heritage value of more than 300 federally-owned historic places. (source)
  • Match ticket sales for arts and cultural venues to help with reduced capacity through the Arts and Culture Recovery Program. (source)
  • Launch a transitional support program for creative industry workers affected by the pandemic. (source)

Conservative platform

  • Undertake a review of the mandate of the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. (source)
  • Demand large streaming services like Netflix invest “a significant portion of their Canadian gross revenue” into creating original Canadian programming; review the fees on Canadian broadcasters. (source)
  • Review the mandate of CBC, including CBC News Network; give Radio-Canada its own legal structure. (source)
  • Create a digital media royalty framework so media outlets are “fairly compensated” when digital platforms share their content. (source)

NDP platform

  • Modernize the Broadcasting Act to level the playing field between Canadian broadcasters and foreign streaming services like Netflix. (source)
  • Increase funding for Telefilm, the Canada Media Fund and CBC/Radio-Canada. (source)
  • Support Canadian media to help with digital transitions. (source)
  • Support Indigenous theatre at the National Arts Centre. (source)
  • Enact income tax averaging for artists and cultural workers to help with the challenges in making a living. (source)

Green platform

  • Up the funding of Canada’s cultural organizations to $1 billion over three years. (source)
  • Amend the Canada Revenue Act so arts and culture workers can use “tax averaging plans” that factor for uneven income streams over the years. (source)
  • “Ensure that the CRTC maintains and updates their Canadian Content (CanCon) regulations and definitions.” (source)

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Liberal platform

  • Launch an on-farm climate scheme for projects including improving nitrogen management and cover cropping, with $200 million over two years. (source)
  • Start the Canada Water Agency, including supporting irrigation infrastructure (See Climate Change and Environment). (source)
  • Help the wine sector adapt to emerging challenges, including Canada’s changing trade commitments, with $101 million over two years.) (source)
  • Add another $292.5 million to help processors of supply-managed agricultural products adapt to new trade rules. (source)
  • Expand the Ghost Gear Program to remove abandoned fishing equipment and plastics. (source)

Conservative platform

  • Support and defend the supply management system, especially for dairy and poultry. (source)
  • Harmonize farm product regulations with trading partners. (source)
  • Extend the “right to repair” to farm vehicles. (source)
  • Work with Indigenous rights-holders and commercial fishermen to “develop management plans which fulfill the rights recognized in the Marshall decisions…and ensure that coastal communities can continue to thrive.” (source)
  • Address illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing, seafood fraud, and ghost gear. (source)
  • Create a tax incentive system for technologies that “reduce contact between wild and farmed salmon.” (source)

NDP platform

  • Create a Canadian Food Strategy to address regional needs and priorities by investing in agricultural communities, supporting new farmers and ensuring that rural livelihoods are sustainable. (source)
  • Protect supply management and ensure reciprocity in trade negotiations. (source)
  • Introduce a payment protection program for produce growers and restore protection for growers selling to the U.S. under the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act. (source)
  • Implement the recommendations of the Cohen Commission to support the transition to land-based closed-containment systems for Pacific wild salmon. (source)

Green platform

  • Phase out open-pen finfish aquaculture in Canadian waters by 2030. (source)
  • Introduce animal welfare legislation to stop the inhumane treatment of farm animals, including conditions in slaughterhouses. (source)
  • Reallocate the $3 billion Next Policy Framework to “to shift program dollars from supporting corporate-controlled industrial agriculture to supporting agriculture that is based on ecological and animal welfare principles, including organic and regenerative practices, permaculture, localized food systems, higher welfare farming systems and short value chains.” (source)
  • “Protect supply management systems while allowing small scale production for local markets outside this system.” (source)
  • “Fund and promote seed banks and the right of farmers to save their own seed” to protect food sovereignty. (source)

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Liberal platform

  • Provide funds for Canada’s international COVID-19 response (See Public Health & Pandemic Preparedness) (source)
  • Protect “Canadians from unacceptable surveillance, harassment, and intimidation by foreign actors.” (source, PBO analysis)
  • Allocate another $165 million for humanitarian assistance, as well as $288 million over three years for the Rohingya crisis. (source)
  • Accelerate and complete the purchase of shares of the African Development Bank by five years to help with the impact of the pandemic. (source)

Conservative platform

  • Recognize as a genocide the measures being carried out by the People’s Republic of China against Uyghurs and other Turkic Muslims; and “stand up” to the Chinese Communist Party. (source)
  • Ban Chinese imports produced with forced Uyghur labour. (source)
  • List Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps as a terrorist organization. (source)
  • Maintain international development funding, but improve accountability. (source)
  • Enact laws that allow the government to impose sanctions on foreign states and foreign nationals that take Canadians hostage, and allow the Minister of Foreign Affairs to offer monetary rewards or asylum to foreign nationals who provide information leading to the release and repatriation of a Canadian hostage. (source)
  • Aim to join the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, an informal strategic alliance between the United States, Japan, Australia and India. (source)
  • Create an Office of Religious Freedom and Conscience to provide advice to the ministry; engage in diplomacy to religious communities; and inform international development programs. (source)
  • Provide documentation to those seeking asylum from Hong Kong and waive records of arrest, charges or convictions related to pro-democracy protests when processing visas; grant asylum to mainland Chinese proponents of freedom and persecuted minorities including Tibetans and Falun Gong practitioners. (source)
  • Withdraw from the China-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. (source)
  • Ban Huawei from Canada’s 5G infrastructure; investigate the company’s role in providing surveillance capabilities used against persecuted minorities in China. (source)
  • Ban senior public office holders from employment or contracts with China or entities controlled by China’s government, including through consulting or law firms, for a period of five years. (source)
  • Use Magnitsky law to impose sanctions on human rights abusers in China, Iran and Russia. (source)
  • Recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel and move the Canadian embassy to Jerusalem. (source)
  • Maintain current international development spending and legislate a $250 million allocation from the annual assistance envelope to “build resilience in fragile democracies.” (source)

NDP platform

  • Boost Canada’s international aid contributions to 0.7 per cent of gross national income. (source)
  • Stand up to China with a strong and coherent strategy to defend Canadian interests, working with allies to craft a robust and coordinated international response, stand with Hong Kong pro-democracy asylum seekers and provide coordinated support for those facing threats by Chinese entities in Canada. (source)
  • Contribute more to The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and support health care systems in developing countries. (source)
  • Support nuclear disarmament, recommit to peacekeeping and ensure Canadian-made weapons are not fuelling conflict and human rights abuses in other countries. (source)
  • Work toward a “just and lasting” two-state solution between Israel and Palestine that respects human rights and upholds international law. (source)
  • Take on a leadership role in helping low-income countries deal with the effects of climate change. (source)

Green platform

 

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Liberal platform

  • Review the Investment Canada Act governing economic security threats from foreign investments. (source)
  • Create a federal hub so businesses can benefit from trade agreements. (source, PBO analysis)
  • Pursue bilateral trade agreements with Asia-Pacific nations. (source)
  • Ensure Canadian firms do not use or benefit from forced labour. (source)

Conservative platform

  • End the importation of wild or exotic animals that carry risk (See Public Health & Pandemic Preparedness) (source)
  • Reinstate PPE tariff (See Public Health & Pandemic Preparedness). (source)
  • Tie industrial carbon price to European Union and United States. (See Climate Change and Environment). (source)
  • Study a carbon border tariff (See Climate Change and Environment). (source)
  • Implement a Liquified Natural Gas export strategy. (source)
  • Ban Chinese imports produced with forced Uyghur labour. (See Foreign Affairs). (source)
  • Develop a “vital national interest category” for procurements that must be sourced in Canada. (source)
  • Withdraw from the Asian Infrastructure and Investment Bank. (source)
  • Strengthen the Investment Canada Act with a presumption against allowing Chinese state-owned entities to take over Canadian firms; reform the “net benefits” test with a focus on intellectual property; automatically review deals involving “sensitive sectors.” (source)
  • Work on a “CANZUK” trade agreement with Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. (source)
  • Revise supply chain legislation to enforce a commitment not to import products made with slave labour. (source)
  • Resume free trade talks with India. (source)

NDP platform

  • Improve the transparency of proposed trade agreements so citizens can understand the terms and have a say before they are signed. (source)
  • Ensure all trade deals follow the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. (source)
  • Modernize Canada’s trade remedy system and ensure that unions have full standing in cases and the ability to initiate trade disputes. (source)

Green platform

  • Use a Carbon Border Adjustment so that domestic firms aren’t at a disadvantage with foreign companies in nations without carbon taxes. (source)
  • “Shift the direction of international trade away from “free trade” to “fair trade” in order to prioritize the protection of human rights, labour standards, cultural diversity, and ecosystems around the world.” (source)
  • Stop federal support for the export of arms and fossil fuels, except for UN peacekeeping equipment. (source)

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