Bringing mindfulness to the school curriculum

More and more kids across Canada are learning meditation techniques. Not everyone thinks it’s a good use of time.

Photograph by Cole Garside

Photograph by Cole Garside

Aliza Naqvi, a 14-year-old student at Dr. Norman Bethune Collegiate Institute in Toronto, carries a key chain strung with seven coloured beads. When she’s feeling stressed or anxious, she can pull it out as a reminder: The first bead, which is blue, stands for “breathe.” The second, red, cues her to reflect on her thoughts; yellow is to consider her emotions, and so on. “At any school, there’s a lot of stress involved,” Naqvi says. “The expectations are really high.” This small token, which fits in her pocket or handbag, reminds her to “take a mindful breath, and to be a little more stable.”

This year, Bethune, which is part of the Toronto District School Board (TDSB), introduced lessons in mindfulness—a type of meditation that encourages awareness of the present moment, in a non-judgmental way—to all of its 200 Grade 9 students, including Naqvi. In six workshops over a two-month period, led by the school’s own teachers, students practised breathing, “body scans” (a meditation exercise that draws attention to different parts of the body), and learned to “surf the wave” of difficult emotions, like anger or anxiety, as Naqvi puts it. The program at Bethune—where one-third of all students have lived in Canada for less than five years—grew out of concern that students faced “a great deal of pressure,” says principal Sandy Kaskens. Surveys showed they had “high expectations of themselves, and their social and emotional well-being was low.” Naqvi admits she was skeptical in the beginning, as were her classmates. That first session, “a lot of people were giggling,” she says. But she was won over, as were her parents, who “realize how much stress we go through.”

According to Kaskens, the response was overwhelmingly positive. This fall’s Grade 9 class will benefit from the same lessons in mindfulness—a practice that’s spreading to schools across the country, even at the elementary level. At Vancouver’s Renfrew Community Elementary School, for example, students begin their day by heading outside to do tai chi, and school assemblies kick off with a mindful breathing exercise. “There are 415 kids in a gym,” says principal Hugh Blackman, “and you can hear a pin drop.”

Entire school boards are adopting similar programs. The Vancouver School District, which includes Renfrew, offers mindfulness training to teachers through the MindUp program, which include classroom “brain breaks” three times daily. The Toronto Catholic District School Board also runs mindfulness sessions for teachers, focusing on those who deal with vulnerable and special needs kids. There are signs the movement is growing further yet. In August, the U.K.-based Mindfulness in Schools Project, which trains teachers across Europe, will offer its first-ever Canadian teacher-training course in Ottawa, with another to follow shortly after in Vancouver. Soon enough, kids across Canada might be practising deep breaths and body scans alongside their math and English homework. Still, not everyone is onside: Some parents (and teachers) worry the practice of meditation is akin to bringing religion into schools—or simply that time in the classroom could be better spent.

Mindfulness, a non-religious meditation practice with roots in Buddhism, has been taught to everyone from medical patients to prison inmates in Canada. There’s a growing body of evidence to back it up, at least among adult practitioners. A 2013 study from the University of Calgary found that it could help breast cancer patients cope with diagnosis, perhaps because it encouraged them to accept the news without jumping to conclusions or getting bogged down in negative thoughts. In 2010, researchers at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health in Toronto concluded that, when it comes to warding off a relapse into major depression, mindfulness is as effective as medication. Brain-scan studies in adults have shown that a regular practice brings about changes in the brain, positively affecting regions associated with memory, sense of self, empathy and stress.

But when it comes to meditation’s impact on the child or adolescent brain, “there hasn’t been a single [brain scan] study,” says Brown University neuroscientist Willoughby Britton. “We have no idea what’s happening, but we can make some educated guesses.” As we pay attention, areas in the prefrontal cortex—which is responsible for higher thinking and self-control—activate, she says; this region is underdeveloped in kids (it continues to develop well into our twenties). Mindfulness seems to engage these parts of the brain.

Teaching this skill set in schools is relatively new, and controversial, not only because research exploring its impact on kids and teens has lagged. “People connect meditation with religion,” explains Jack Miller, a professor at the University of Toronto’s Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, who instructs teachers on how to use mindfulness in classrooms. In the U.S., where even school yoga practice has raised eyebrows, it’s been especially problematic. Last year, a mindfulness program at an Ohio elementary school was shut down amid a flurry of parent complaints, partly over perceived overtones of Eastern religion. Not only that: “They were taking valuable time away from education to put students in a room of darkness to lie on their backs,” one mother of three kids complained to a local newspaper.

In Vermont, where mindfulness programs are now available in some elementary and high schools, “we worked the most on language,” says Marilyn Neagley, director of the Talk About Wellness initiative, which teaches self-calming skills to school-age kids. “When we say ‘mindfulness,’ we feel it’s safer than saying ‘meditation,’ ” whereas yoga is often simply referred to as “stretching,” adds Neagley, who was instrumental to introducing these programs across the state. (In Canada, this has been less of an issue: At Bethune, teachers use a Tibetan singing bowl to sound the beginning of mindfulness practice, whereas U.S. teachers have been encouraged to use “secular” chimes.) The main objection Neagley runs into isn’t from parents. It’s from teachers, who say they’re already too busy: “I can’t do one more program.”

At Bethune, last November, interested teachers started practising mindfulness together over the lunch hour; after a full day of training in January, they launched student workshops a month later. “It’s become really clear that if you want to do this in schools, you have to start with teachers,” says Willem Kuyken, professor of clinical psychology at the University of Exeter, who has studied mindfulness programs in U.K. schools, where they’re more established. “The teacher needs to embody the qualities [of mindfulness] they’re trying to teach.”

Jon Gold, who teaches seventh- and eighth- grade history at Moses Brown School in Providence, R.I., has been practising mindfulness for years. He starts each class by ringing a bell, closing his eyes and inviting students to join him in silent meditation. “Once in a while, I’d give the hairy eyeball to a kid,” he says, “but they came to value that time. They felt calmer and better able to focus.” Gold collaborated on a new study in the Journal of School Psychology, which randomized Grade 6 students into two groups: One took an Asian history course with a daily mindfulness exercise, and the other an African history course with another activity (instead of meditating, they built a life-size Egyptian mummy). According to the study’s lead author, Brown University’s Britton, both groups saw benefits on anxiety and depression, suggesting that experiential activity in school can support kids’ mental health; the young meditators were also significantly less likely to develop suicidal ideation, or thoughts of self-harm.

More studies are beginning to explore the impact of mindfulness on kids and teens. In the U.K., a 2013 paper found that 10- and 11-year-olds who participated in an eight-week program were better able to ignore distractions. Another found that 12-to-16-year-old students had fewer symptoms of stress and depression. “The effect became larger at the most challenging time of the school year, during the end-of-year exams,” says Exeter’s Kuyken, the lead author. Some research has suggested that mindfulness can help children and adults cope with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, maybe offering an alternative (at least for some) to medication. As far as the effects of mindfulness on the youngest kids, though, “that’s pretty much an evidence-free zone,” Kuyken continues. The programs now sprouting up at elementary schools in Canada, the U.S. and the U.K. will be a boon to researchers, who wish to explore the effects of meditation on the young mind.

Since the mindfulness sessions at Bethune came to a close, Naqvi finds herself drawing on lessons they learned. In times of stress, she says, it helps her understand “it’s okay, everyone feels the same way. Taking a deep breath makes you feel more confident, and ready for what you’re about to do.”


Bringing mindfulness to the school curriculum

  1. Learning to control yourself…mental discipline…is something society very much needs.

    • Gassho.

      Just to differ slightly… What kind of discussion would it be with you otherwise :-) it’s not so much learning to control yourself, but recognising when control is necessary, and if it isn’t – and knowing the tools to exercise control when control is necessary.

      • Does your brain have any idea what your mouth is saying?

        Doesn’t sound like it.

        • Perhaps an analytical approach would have been more beneficial than your vindictive reply. Mindfulness meditation would assist in letting you do that.

  2. I teach in China and twice a day, after break, the kids will take 10 minutes to listen to an announcement over the PA that counts down for rubbing their temples in circle, their eyes, their necks, etc. Considering how many kids are in a classroom and how keyed up they get by the end of a class, it really helps to centre them.

  3. A well rounded article, however check your references : the 2013 hyperlink provided is to the Kuyken et al 2013 study of 12-to-16-year-old students; not the “10- and 11-year-olds who participated in an eight-week program were better able to ignore distractions.” , which has no known publication.

  4. Mindfulness, a non religious meditation practice with roots in Buddhism.” Is that like Christmas pageants that are non-religious but rooted in Christianity? I thought our public schools could not countenance that sort of thing!

    • Non-religious Christmas pageants are not rooted in Christianity. In our schools anything related in Christianity is not allowed. Just as others do not want Christianity in schools, I do not want Buddhism-rooted “mindfulness” or yoga in our schools. I think we may be headed there anyway.

      • Wow, Lois, you’re very closed minded. Yoga and mindfulness are not at all religious and are offered at many mainstream gyms. They are healthy mind/body practices that many CEOs do to stay fit and focused. Yoga began with Hinduism anyway, not Buddhism. These practices were adopted by these religions because they noted their benefits. That’s all.

    • Buddhism has no God, no gods, and an essential understanding is that there is no soul. It is not a religion, purely. In practice it can be.

  5. There’s nothing, nothing more important than self-knowledge and the ability to harness one’s mind power.

  6. gym classes are being cut and kids are getting fat from sitting at computers all day and this article suggests the kids sit for even longer to get centered?

    • Mindfulness is a practice, an action, a tool to understand how your own individual mind works, what drives your own actions and desires. Yes it can be a tool towards fitness.

      To sit and watch your own thoughts go by, and perhaps visualize them as clouds one after the other that you grab onto and chase, while you practice the discipline of staying very still is a very difficult practice.

      That is only one part, one technique in the practice. For I at vice, you could also sit and watch those clouds go by as a chain of thoughts and drives and want and needs and begin to understand what is necessary and what isn’t.

      So yes it can be a tool to fitness. Because you can begin to understand when not acting is not necessary and when acting is necessary.

      • For I at vice. Stupid autocorrect. And Macleans really ought to go back to Disqus or at least allow edits.

        ‘For instance’

  7. You didn’t dig very deeply in your research!
    This is indeed a calculated carefully crafted full blown effort to desensitize parents and children, teaching them to be life long practicing Buddhists. Right from “Roots of Empathy” in Kindergarten to “Mindup” through to Grade nine. Just because something is “Main stream” in the Gym does not take away from the Fact that a single Religous belief system is being taught in the Public school system. These children have no other frame of reference for comparison and NONE is allowed.This orchrstrated indoctrination of our children is paid for by taxpayers without their knowledge. If Christians tried this the whole Country would be deaf from the howling of outrage.

    Who supplies the Mindfullness/Mindup class material? The Goldie Hawn Foundation. Take a look at what Goldie has to say about her Foundations material being “”Religious material, in her own words. No apologies from her!
    Take a look at what the Dehli Lama had to say about the introduction of this program into the Education system in BC. The opportunity of a life time….
    Take a look at the “Certified” Instructors who “Teach” our Public school teachers how to present and deal with those of other Religous beliefs who have concerns about what is being taught to their children. They HAVE to be practicing Buddhists!
    Look at the names and backgrounds of the people cited as references for the “Independent” research done. ALL openly practicing Buddhists.
    Look at “ROOTS of Empathy”. It is wholly funded by an organization of major International Companies around the world, ALL of which are Chaired or run by openly practicing Buddists who make Buddhist practices a non-optional part of their workers day!
    Watch how they try to hide what they are doing by saying ‘that Christians and those of other Religous belief also practice meditation’. True! The difference is that Buddists strive to empty their minds of everything. Nature abhors as vaccuum. Christianity and several other Religous belief systems teach one to meditate on what is Good, Loving, Kind, Pure and to imprint these things in your hearts and minds through meditation so they are always close in daily living.

    One commentator below suggests “There’s nothing, nothing more important than self-knowledge and the ability to harness one’s mind power.” Isn’t there? How about the practice of Self Control. The one is ALL about you! The other is all about caring for other people. “The difference is subtle but at completely opposite ends of the spectrum.

    “There are none so blind as those who will not see.”

    Your article didn’t even scratch the surface. You’re not a Buddist yourself are you?
    See you at Yoga class.

  8. Too bad. Taking faith in God out of classroom and putting in New Age practices is not my idea of education.

  9. Kate,
    I am a university professor and I am anxious tolearn if this program of Mindfulness is in PEI or any of the Maritime provinces Do you know who I should contact?


  10. While this movement is growing by leaps and bounds, there is a very dark side to it as well. A recent article in The Atlantic (“The Dark Knight of the Soul”) features practitioners and former boosters of this art who offer a cautionary tale to those who engage in it.

    • I’ve been involved with mindfulness meditation for about 35 years. I’m now 80. I have no idea what you mean by the “dark side.”
      The only thing I can think of is that once you are able to quieten you mind (which may take months or years) trauma that you purposely buried begins to resurface. This happens because you never really dealt with it in the first place. It has come back at a conscious level as a reality check for you to address it. This can sometimes cause a temporary return of the negative feelings you once experienced. However, there’s nothing dark about it, only the need to address it in a way honest to yourself.

  11. Once again, the religious element, totally ignorant of anything beyond their narrow, exclusive knowledge of religion, have interfered with a beneficial program that’s been around for thousands of years. All because they believe it “negates” their own belief system. Sad.
    They, and others, may want to read a book entitled, “Wherever You Go There You Are” by Jon Kabat Zinn, PhD. Jon is the founder and director of the Stress Reduction Clinic at the University of Massachusetts Medical Centre. He teaches mindfulness meditation to judges, health professionals, teachers, prison inmates, corporate executives, low income inner city people, etc. to lower stress levels and the skill of becoming more mindful in everyday work and play.

  12. This is a great article and discussion below is very interesting. I have just published an article on Mindfulness in Schools that some of you might find interesting –
    We would love to know what you think, and don’t hesitate to get in touch if you need help with anything